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Articles from 2008 In May


Market Trends: Medical's 'Mini' Revolution

Market Trends: Medical's 'Mini' Revolution

May 30, 2008
Spotlight Story:
Medical's 'Mini' Revolution
Increasingly, the world of medicine is taking the "minimalist" route, developing technologies designed to sharply reduce patient discomfort and trauma in applications ranging from diagnostics to surgery. Full Story
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NEW Clippard Oxygen Series Electronic Valves

Clippard's new Oxygen Clean valves are available in 2-way or 3-way, Normally-Closed or fully ported configurations. They provide safety of operation in Oxygen applications with quick response, low power consumption, long life, and unlimited flexibility in design. Click Here.
Medical Technology in the News:
Safeguarding Reliability in Implants, Medical Equipment Medical equipment manufacturers are successfully attacking failure and cost problems with a variety of new technologies. One of the most interesting solutions is also the simplest - an innovative self-locking fastener called Spiralock. Full Story
Designing Custom Implants More Efficiently All medical product design processes are complex, but creating custom implants and prosthetics further lengthens the workflow to assure a finished component with perfect fit, comfort and aesthetics. Full Story
Paris-to-Beijing Run to Spawn Bio-Realistic 3-D Foot Model Running from Paris to Beijing by the Summer Olympics, virtual-reality professor Philippe Fuchs partners with Dassault to create a bio-realistic 3-D model of a human foot. Full Story
Mechatronics in Medical Engineering Medical mechatronics applications, specifically nano-scale materials and MEMS (Micro Electric-Mechanical Systems) are being used to engineer medical devices. Full Story
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Sponsored Technology Content
Engineering Concept Conduit In partnership with Digi-Key
Welcome to Engineering Concept Conduit, this site takes a look at the engineering challenges your peers faced and examines the components that solved those challenges. Find out how this translates to a concept you can implement immediately. Our first video features the functionality of the Omnimouse. Read More

Partnering with Iowa State's Institute for Physical Research and Technology In partnership with Groschopp Inc.
Groschopp Inc. engineers and manufactures customized, high-reliability fractional horsepower electric motors and gear motors for some of the world's most demanding Original Equipment Manufacturers. Find out why the company has turned to IPRT Company Assistance to help it maintain its reputation for products of the highest quality. Read More

Design Tips For Engineers: Taking Aluminum to the Next Level In partnership with Hydro Aluminum
Find out how aluminum extrusions can be designed to minimize the need for further processing, making assembly and final production easier, more cost-effective and efficient. Read More


MicroMolding Spurs Space-age Innovation In partnership with Phillips Plastics Corporation
To achieve a high level of energy density, as well as green environment and safety, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) prefers to use cryogenic propellants, such as liquid oxygen, hydrogen and methane, to propel their spacecraft. Read More



Lean Thinking Drives Assembly Innovation In partnership with Tinnerman
When a large Midwestern building manufacturer had a strong need to improve the way their product was assembled their thoughts immediately turned to the unfortunate potential for increased cost in solving their problem. Find out how Tinnerman helped create a cost effective fastening solution. Read More

Modernize Product Data Management

To stay competitive innovation is the key. Learn how your company can excel its product development processes by moving up to next-generation technology. Register today and enter for a chance to win a digital camera! Click Here.
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NeuroArm Surgical Robot Operates with Guidance from MRI - VIDEO Nanomotion's piezoelectric motion components go into medical devices in close proximity to magnetically sensitive imaging systems. The latest example is the NeuroArm, a surgical robot that operates with real-time guidance from an MRI machine. Watch Now

Solving Sensor Interfacing Issues in Portable Multi-Sensor Systems - WEBCAST As sensors numbers increase and specifications tighten, the design challenges of the sensor interfacing portion of the system increase. Guest expert Andreas Heldwein from ZMD AG will identify a solution to simplify interfacing multiple sensors. Watch Now
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Medical's 'Mini' Revolution
Safeguarding Reliability in Implants, Medical Equipment
Designing Custom Implants More Efficiently
Paris-to-Beijing Run to Spawn Bio-Realistic 3-D Foot Model
Mechatronics in Medical Engineering
Contact Us






Regina Lynch,
Web Editor
Email me

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SIMULIA Stars In Lenovo Simulation Center

SIMULIA Stars In Lenovo Simulation Center

Score one for Dassault’s SIMULIA division. The Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) tool has been tapped by PC giant Lenovo (Think the former IBM ThinkPad line) to establish a simulation center within Lenovo’s Design Center for PC and portable electronics products. The new center will tap the Abaqus tools to evaluate realistic product performance throughout the various phases of the design stage, officials say.

Specifically, Lenovo will employ Abaqus to simulate dynamic impact, heat transfer, vibration, fatigue and other realistic performance characteristics of its products. The analysis enables Lenovo design engineers to determine what parts to modify and where to add damping materials in order to make PCs quieter, for example, as well as to do virtual drop testing of cell phones in order to make them more durable.

Gadget Freak: Special BBQ Edition

Gadget Freak: Special BBQ Edition

May 30, 2008
Welcome to the Gadget Freak Backyard BBQ!
In honor of approaching long weekend barbecues, we at Design News pulled together some of our favorite backyard Gadget Freaks. Click on the inventions for more information on how to create your own fun!
Super-Powered Salad Spinner
Say goodbye to your ordinary salad spinner. Rick Crammond's will have your greens dry as a bone faster than you can say cucumber. Video included!
Get Build Instructions | Watch the Video | Post a Comment


Project Dragon Fish: Joe Takes Rocket Science to New Depths
Joe Peck's exploration of underwater model rocketry brings him to new heights ... and new depths. Watch the video!
Get Build Instructions | Post a Comment
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Ed Had A Fondness for Orange Crush
For the gadget freak who thinks he has everything, here's Ed Nauman's microprocessor-controlled, pneumatic-actuated can crusher. Great for parties, it consists of a pneumatic ram, precision bore crushing cylinder with aluminum crushing piston, two pneumatic rams to control the loading of cans and solenoid valves to control the rams.
Get Build Instructions | Post a Comment


Jason Was An Honorary Member of the Captain Nemo Fan Club
Inspired by 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, Jason built this underwater Remote Operated Vehicle (ROV) so he could explore the depths of his bath tub, swimming pool and beyond. The ROV is controlled via Visual Basic commands sent over an RS232 serial port.
Get Build Instructions | Post a Comment
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Get free dev tools from Microchip!

Microchip is giving away over $5000 in motor control tools! Visit our web site for more details on how to improve your efficiency, eliminate costly sensors, lower noise, reduce your form factor and explore cost reduction options with our 16-bit dsPIC(R) digital signal controllers. Click Here.
William Played A Mean Game of Go Fish!
Take down the house with this gadget. William's handheld controller provides the display of a monitored process deviation - but after hours it doubles as a card counter. (In either case, the algorithm is identical.) It works by adding or subtracting manually entered "event" counts to a common 8-bit counter register.
Get Build Instructions | Post a Comment

The Tube to the Recycling Center
Has an Air Ride

Already have a beer-tossing refrigerator and can crusher? Here's a handy way to recycle your empties.
Get Build Instructions | Post a Comment
Get all these designs and more in the Gadget Freak Community!
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Sponsored Technology Content

Hysteresis Blocks MagicIn partnership with Analog Devices
Can I recalibrate my precision analog circuits to achieve higher accuracy? There is no magic process for upgrading the precision of analog circuitry. A phenomenon know as hysteresis limits just how repeatable it can be. Read More

Super-Powered Salad Spinner
Project Dragon Fish: Joe Takes Rocket Science to New Depths
Ed Had A Fondness for Orange Crush
Jason Was An Honorary Member of the Captain Nemo Fan Club
William Played A Mean Game of Go Fish!
The Tube to the Recycling Center Has an Air Ride
View All Gadgets
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Calling All Gadget Freaks...
Do you have what it takes to be the next Gadget Freak?
E-mail a description of your project to us. If your project is selected, we'll feature it in an upcoming edition of the magazine and send you a check for $500.
Download the entry form
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Copyright 2008, Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc.

Motion Control: Integrated Safety on the Rise

Motion Control: Integrated Safety on the Rise

May 29, 2008
Spotlight Story:
Integrated Safety on the Rise
Machine builders have good reason to move away from their traditional relay-based safety systems and adopt an approach that integrates safety with the main automation systems. Full Story
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Wave Spring 3D Models
CAD models of Smalley Wave Springs are downloadable at application specific heights. Enter any height between the spring solid and free height in over 60 native and natural CAD formats. Wave springs can reduce spring height by up to 50%! Click Here.
In the News:
Phoenix Mars Lander Probes for Signs of Life
Update: NASA set up a lab May 25 on Mars to analyze polar ice in an effort to determine if the Red Planet can support life. A shovel will chop terrain the consistency of granite. Video and podcasts included. Full Story Stanford's Autonomous Helicopter, Cars Big Hit at Expo
Gabe Hoffmann, Ph.D candidate at Stanford University and controls lead for Junior and Stanley talked autonomous cars and demonstrated an unmanned quadrotor helicopter at the Mechatronics Expo. Full Story

Tomorrow's Fuel-Efficient Automotive Transmissions Automotive engineers are revamping the transmissions of conventional vehicles to save fuel without sacrificing driving performance.

Full Story

Engineering for SafetyWith the dawn of a smart highway, evolving networking technology and safety standards and virtual advances, the importance of safety is moving to the forefront of engineering.

Full Story
Automating Solar Energy
Developers of solar energy systems are turning to automated equipment to ramp up photovoltaic wafers, in efforts to meet an increased industry demand of such energy. Read More

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Robotic Jellyfish Swim and Fly at Hannover Fair - VIDEO The biggest draws at Festo's Hannover Fair exhibits have been biologically inspired robotic creatures that show off cutting-edge automation technologies. Watch Now

Solving Sensor Interfacing Issues in Portable Multi-Sensor Systems - WEBCAST As sensors numbers increase and specifications tighten, the design challenges of the sensor interfacing portion of the system increase. Guest expert Andreas Heldwein from ZMD AG will identify a solution to simplify interfacing multiple sensors. Watch Now
ADVERTISEMENT
Sponsored Technology Content
Webcast: Mechatronics in the Age of Digital Images In partnership with Bosch Rexroth, National Instruments and Siemens PLM
Avid photographers talk about image focus, shutter speed and depth of field, but rarely do they talk about image sensors, gyroscopes, actuators and ultrasonic motors. But the digital camera is truly a mechatronics marvel. Kevin Craig's three-part webcast takes you through the basics of photography through the birth of the digital age to explain how mechatronics is revolutionizing the digital camera. Read More

Partnering with Iowa State's Institute for Physical Research and Technology In partnership with Groschopp Inc.
Groschopp Inc. engineers and manufactures customized, high-reliability fractional horsepower electric motors and gear motors for some of the world's most demanding Original Equipment Manufacturers. Find out why the company has turned to IPRT Company Assistance to help it maintain its reputation for products of the highest quality. Read More


All the Muscle, Half the Space. In partnership with ABB
ABB's new all-in-one low voltage drive can increase your productivity, while saving you space and energy.
Experience this drive now! Read More


Webcast: Unique Solutions for Mechatronics Process Management In partnership with Siemens
Learn how Teamcenter's Mechatronics Process Management can provide solutions to:
- Manage the complexities of product variation
- Achieve higher quality products resulting in lower warranty costs
- Bring more innovative products to market faster with fewer resources Read More


Dive into Direct Digital Manufacturing - WEBCAST In partnership with Stratasys
Direct Digital Manufacturing (DDM) or rapid manufacturing is taking place today. Knowing what DDM is and how to implement within your company is a competitive advantage in today's manufacturing environment. Watch Now
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The Latest Motion Control Resources Available:
Featured Vendor
Custom Sensors & Technologies (CST) CST represents a unique collection of companies under one umbrella as a distinct global business unit within Schneider Electric. Now a singular business, they represents a set of proven brands with a long-standing ability to deliver advanced application-specific solutions across a wide array of sensing technologies along with control and actuation products. View All Resources from CST

Terminator I/O Selection Guide Vendor:AutomationDirect | Type: Design Guide Terminator I/O combines all the features of terminal blocks and I/O modules into one convenient package. This guide outlines the key things to consider and provides detailed spec's.


Bipolar Switching Power Supply Vendor:Enfield Technologies | Type: Design Guide The A-PS12VSB is an economical choice for powering both the Enfield Technologies LS-C10 controller and the LS-C30-12V sensor interface (PULS ML30.106).
View All Motion Control/Automation Resources

Integrated Safety on the Rise Phoenix Mars Lander Probes for Signs of Life
Stanford's Autonomous Helicopter, Cars Big Hit at Expo
Tomorrow's Fuel-Efficient Automotive Transmissions
Engineering for Safety
Automating Solar Energy
DN's Latest Podcasts, Webcasts & Videos
Resource Center
Contact Us


Joseph Ogando,
Senior Editor

Are you integrating safety into your main automation systems? Email me.


Technologies in Motion Blog
Rapid Prototyping Blog




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Paris-to-Beijing Run to Spawn Bio-Realistic 3-D Foot Model

Virtual-reality professor takes off on a 6,000-mile ultra-marathon to help create a bio-realistic 3-D model of a human foot

Resource Center E-Alert: Free Materials/Fastening Information, Made Easy

Resource Center E-Alert: Free Materials/Fastening Information, Made Easy

May 28, 2008
Design News' Resource Center e-Alert provides design engineers fast and convenient access to the latest information - data sheets, design guides, CAD files, application notes, instruction manuals, reference designs and white papers - on technologies and products available on manufacturer sites.
Featured Vendor
Phillips Plastics Phillips Plastics has set the standard for injection molding services since 1964 with state-of-the-art technology, experienced staff, and collaborative partnerships resulting in unsurpassed quality and cost-savings. View All Resources from Phillips Plastics
FREE STAMPING BROCHUREVendor:Bokers | Type:Data Sheet | Category: Materials/FasteningBoker's Quality Stamping Brochure details their metal forming, flat blanking, piercing and draw capabilities with numerous examples. The company's World Class Manufacturing goals are discussed, including in-house tooling, complete statistical process control (S.P.C.) capability, "Dock-to-Stock" and "Just-In-Time" programs. The brochure also includes a useful gauge decimal equivalent chart and comprehensive glossary of stamping terms. Request a brochure or FAX your prints today!


New color product catalog availableVendor:Elgin Fasteners International | Type:Product Catalog | Category: Materials/FasteningElgin Fasteners International introduces a new 4 page color Product Catalog describing fastener engineering, international sourcing and support services. Included are application engineering, domestic productions, import sourcing and quality assurance. Elgin Fasteners International adds fastener engineering and quality offshore purchasing options to the domestic manufacturing capabilities of the Elgin Fastener Group (EFG).


Finishing PaintingVendor:Hydro Aluminum | Type:Design Guide | Category: Materials/FasteningAnodizing is an electrochemical process that creates a significantly thicker layer of oxide than occurs naturally. This provides protection against mechanical wear and corrosion at the same time as electrically insulating the surface.

Featured Vendor
Solvay Advanced Polymers Solvay Advanced Polymers Technology. No matter what you're working on, you need a material that performs. After all, the material you specify this year will determine the success of your product next year and beyond. That's where Solvay Advanced Polymers can help. Whether you're looking to reduce weight or lower cost, improve durability or consolidate parts, you'll find Solvay to be an amazing resource of polymers and people with expertise. View All Resources from Solvay Advanced Polymers
Siemens PLM Webcast on Mechatronics Process ManagementVendor:Siemens PLM Software | Type:Web Event | Category:Materials/Fastening
Building intelligence into a product requires software that is integrated with certain functions of the product. The addition of wire harness, electronics and software to an already complex product development process adds new challenges for the product development schedule, cost and quality. All of these different types of data, as well as their change processes, must be managed and shared.

Learn how Teamcenter's Mechatronics Process Management can provide solutions to:
  • Manage the complexities of product variation

  • Achieve higher quality products resulting in lower warranty costs

  • Bring more innovative products to market faster with fewer resources

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Timex piece of junk

Timex piece of junk

Last Christmas Eve, I extolled the virtues of my new Timex watch in my blog. Well, I am reversing that capricious sentiment.  In a mere six months, the watch hands fall behind the digital read out. I thought it was cool that my watch had both analog and digital ways to tell time. Alas, the analog hands can’t keep the correct time. Within a span of 24 hours, they’ll fall 24 hours behind. Maybe, I should try a Casio next time.

International Engineering: Phoenix Mars Lander Probes for Signs of Life

International Engineering: Phoenix Mars Lander Probes for Signs of Life

May 28, 2008
Special Coverage:
Phoenix Mars Lander Probes
for Signs of Life
Update: NASA set up a lab May 25 on Mars to analyze polar ice in an effort to determine if the Red Planet can support life. A shovel will chop terrain the consistency of granite. Video and podcasts included. Full Story
ADVERTISEMENT
In the News:
Phoenix Mars Lander Begins Amazing Engineering Investigation The Phoenix Mars Lander landed Sunday night with solar panels and a camera deploying as planned. First photos show a landscape that looks like a red paved parking lot. Read More
Auto Industry Prepares for Intelligent Highway Automakers plan to build dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) into future vehicles, enabling them to "talk" to other cars and traffic lights, thus reducing accidents.
Read More
Robotic Highlights from the Hannover Fair Highlights at the Hannover Fair included the world's strongest arm robot and human-friendly fluidic muscle innovations. Video included.
Read More
Can Global Warming Sell More Than Candy? Is the Reese's division of Hershey's candy company company trying to cash in by exploiting our growing environmental consciousness to sell candy?
Read More
Boeing began final assembly this week on its third flight-test Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
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Mars: The Search for Water, the Search for Life - VIDEO This clip looks at images of Mars and compares them to similar features found on Earth and addresses possible consequences of finding liquid water on Mars. Watch Now

- PODCASTTim Gasparrini of Lockheed Martin describes the mechanical engineering challenges of building a Lander that will function on the Martian North Pole from May to November.
ADVERTISEMENT
Sponsored Technology Content
Hysteresis Blocks Magic In partnership with Analog Devices
Can I recalibrate my precision analog circuits to achieve higher accuracy? There is no magic process for upgrading the precision of analog circuitry. A phenomenon know as hysteresis limits just how repeatable it can be. Read More


Engineering Concept Conduit In partnership with Digi-Key
Welcome to Engineering Concept Conduit, this site takes a look at the engineering challenges your peers faced and examines the components that solved those challenges. Find out how this translates to a concept you can implement immediately. Our first video features the functionality of the Omnimouse. Read More

Partnering with Iowa State's Institute for Physical Research and Technology In partnership with Groschopp Inc.
Groschopp Inc. engineers and manufactures customized, high-reliability fractional horsepower electric motors and gear motors for some of the world's most demanding Original Equipment Manufacturers. Find out why the company has turned to IPRT Company Assistance to help it maintain its reputation for products of the highest quality. Read More

Design Tips For Engineers: Taking Aluminum to the Next Level In partnership with Hydro Aluminum
Find out how aluminum extrusions can be designed to minimize the need for further processing, making assembly and final production easier, more cost-effective and efficient. Read More

Sensorless Field Oriented (FOC) Control for AC Induction Motors In partnership with Microchip Technology Inc.
The requirement of low-cost, low-maintenance, robust electrical motors have resulted in the emergence of the AC Induction Motor (ACIM) as the industry leader. Learn how to apply sensorless field-oriented control of induction motors using a dsPIC(R) Digital Signal Controller (DSC) from Microchip Technology. Read More

Phoenix Mars Lander Probes for Signs of Life
Phoenix Mars Lander Begins Amazing Engineering Investigation
Auto Industry Prepares for Intelligent Highway
Robotic Highlights from the Hannover Fair
Can Global Warming Sell More Than Candy?

DN's Latest Podcasts, Webcasts & Videos
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Adhesive Puzzle: Can You Help?

Adhesive Puzzle: Can You Help?

One of the fun parts of writing for Design News is hearing readers’ requests for help. I got a doozy in a meeting last week. The requirements are listed below. If you have a though, put them in the comments, or write me directly at doug.smock@reedbusiness.com.

 

This documents the objective, and criteria pertaining to bonding a neoprene product to an aluminum surface whereby once bonding is completed, the product is readily functional.

 

Objective

 

The objective is to identify an adhesive system; tape type or film, hot melt, 2-part system, contact cement or a cement in liquid form which will be applied to a neoprene rubber product in a plant environment, and then the product shipped to a customer who will apply the product to aluminum. The product must be operational within 1-3 hours after the bonding process has started. It requires approx one hour to bond the part. The customer may install the product immediately, or it may be in inventory of a period of time.

 

The aluminum will be cleaned, and can be washed with solvents, or may be wiped with an alodine solution prior to joining. Wipe-on type primers or adhesion enhancers may be applied to the aluminum by the customer as part of the bonding process.

 

The adhesive must be strippable; parts will be replaced periodically.

 

The adhesive system, preparation procedures, bonding procedures and storage procedures must be identified. Stripping procedures must be identified.

 

Any suggested adhesive systems will be evaluated thoroughly.

                                     

Description

 

The adhesive system will be applied to flat neoprene rubber textured surfaces in the plant using determined manufacturing procedures. The adhesive may be covered with a removable liner. The part will be rolled, bagged, and then placed in a box for shipping. The part will be shipped to the customer. The customer may install it one day, or may keep it in inventory for a period of time. The maximum shelf life must be determined. Once the customer installs the part, it must be operational; within an approx 1 –3 hour period from the time the work begins. The adhesive may not be at full strength at that time, but must be at least strong enough to function without failure.

 

Tie-in layers may be added to the bond side of the product in the plant to allow for adhesive systems not directly compatible with neoprene to be considered.

 

Operational Conditions

 

Physical Requirements

 

            Rolling Peel                           2”/ min                        40 lb/in

            Dynamic Lap Shear              2”/min             115 PSI

 

            Dynamic Stitch Seam Test              2”/min             40 lb/in

                        (Customer’s test)

 

            Static Dead Load Lap Shear          9 lbs/sq in for 96 hours, max allowable creep of 0.010”

Static Dead Load Stitch Seam       9 lbs/sq in for 96 hours, minimal creep allowed

                        (Customer’s test)

 

            Fatigue Stitched Seam                    9 lb loading at 3 cycles/minute for 8 hours, minimal creep                                   (Customer’s test, 10 seconds loaded, 10 seconds unloaded)

 

Product Testing

                                                                                               

            Install rubber parts on aluminum structure, wait 1 hour, and initiate cycle test

 

Temperature Range

 

            Survival Temperature Range:          –60 F thru 160 F

            Operational Temperature Range:   -22 F thru 140 F

 

Environment

 

            Storage:                     Ambient temperature and humidity

            Operational:   External environment. 

 

Note: The edges of the product and adhesive will be sealed with a rubber-based sealer.

 

The above physical properties are a guide, and are the minimums as observed with current adhesives in this application. They are not a specification, and may be varied. The true test is the product operational performance. The customer will test and certify that the adhesive system selected performs satisfactorily in this application.

 

Action

 

Identify an off the shelf products for this application, or identify a vendor who will mix an adhesive to meet these requirements.

 

Determine the procedures, shelf life, and time between application to the product and customer installation for the selected adhesive.

 

 

Plastics Made from Biofuels? The Future is Bleak

Plastics Made from Biofuels? The Future is Bleak

There’s a lot of PR about potential use of biofuels as chemical feedstocks. In fact at the last major plastics show, K 2007, there were banners flying in two halls announcing big projects in Brazil and Italy. But one of the companies making an announcement, Dow Chemical, says biofeedstocks have a bleak future.

 

In an outstanding plenary speech at the Annual Technical Conference of the Society (Antec) of Plastic Engineers, Dr. William F. Banholzer, the chief technology officer at Dow, threw a huge wet blanket on the whole idea of biofuel feedstocks. “The utilization of biofuels as a primary feedstock for production of commodity chemicals will most likely be constrained by a shortage of cropland, limited capital, and the availability of lower-cost alternatives,” Banholzer told Antec. “Absent unforeseen technological innovations or significant government mandates, this situation is unlikely to change on a wholesale basis in coming decades.”

 

Banholzer made his case going through each point in meticulous, clear detail. For example, the cost of natural gas in the Mideast is about $2 per gigajoule (GJ), an SI unit of energy equal to 109 joules. The cost to produce ethanol (an alternative feedstock to natural gas) is about $19/GJ. Production of plastics has been migrating from the United States to the Mideast over the past 20 years. That process is accelerating, and makes more economic sense than producing chemicals from ethanol in the United States, particularly when you consider all of the other issues surrounding ethanol production

 

“For corn ethanol to compete with Middle East ethane on an energy basis, it would have to sell for a mere $0.15/gal, says Bahnolzer. Ethanol from corn costs about $1.74 per gallon to produce

 

Many of Banholzer’s points are summed up in an article he co-wrote for the American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

 

Dow’s plan to make polyethylene from sugarcane in Brazil made sense because the company needed more capacity in South America and sugar cane was a competitive feedstock in South America.