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Articles from 2021 In January


Study Explores ‘Stay of Execution’ for NiMH Batteries

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A new report sheds some light on hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries used to power them. NiMH batteries are still the most common battery on the road, said IDTechEx in its report, Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Markets 2021-2041. Full HEVs have electric-only modes but do not plug in. Will the growing market for HEVs drive further demand for NiMH batteries and stop their elimination from the automotive market?

The report covers this topic and identifies the key players and geographical markets for HEVs. Battery and motor-generator technology is analyzed for HEV cars, buses, and trucks; forecasts are presented for lithium-ion (Li-ion) and NiMH battery demand over the next 20 years.

HEVs are powered by both gasoline and electricity. The electric energy is generated by the car’s own braking system. This is called “regenerative braking,” a process where the electric motor helps to slow the vehicle and uses some of the energy normally converted to heat by the brakes, according to a detailed explanation of electric vehicle types published by EVgo, a maker of charging stations.

According to IDTechEx, Toyota is the ruling OEM in the global HEV car market, with over 60% market share in 2019 (the Toyota Prius Hybrid and Toyota Camry Hybrid). Other manufacturers have started to eat into this share over the years, but Toyota reigns supreme. While other OEMs have mostly transitioned toward Li-ion batteries for their HEVs, Toyota remains committed to NiMH batteries and HEVs for the foreseeable future, with the majority of its line-up now using either NiMH or Li-ion, depending on the specifications. For the relatively small batteries that are used in HEVs, the NiMH is still sufficient to meet requirements. It is also more technologically mature and lower in cost than Li-ion.

Typically the battery-electric vehicle (BEV) uses the Li-ion battery, which is dominant in the market, noted IDTechEx.

Sales of HEVs have continued to grow throughout the COVID-19 pandemic despite the downturn in the overall car market. This, combined with Toyota’s dominance and NiMH portfolio, provides a good market for NiMH batteries, at least in the short term, said IDTechEx. Additionally, fossil fuel bans are incoming, with countries like the UK banning purely internal combustion engine vehicles by 2030 and only allowing hybrids “that can drive a significant distance with zero emissions.”

HEV battery manufacturers likely will increase battery capacity in order to expand the electric-only range, making the Li-ion option more appealing. Even with this stay of execution for HEVs, banning vehicles with ICEs of any sort is likely to follow shortly after. This will eliminate the HEV in many markets and, hence, demand for NiMH.

Data Represents the Key to Jumpstarting Elective Surgeries Business

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When the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommended in April that hospitals postpone or eliminate elective surgeries to deal with the potential surge of COVID-19 cases, it was like a gut punch to the medical device industry.

The CovidSurg Collaborative estimates that more than 4 million surgeries were canceled over the peak 12 weeks of the pandemic (roughly mid-March to mid-June) in the United States, part of the 28.4 million cancellations worldwide. Recovery from this scenario is expected to be slow.

For example, a May 2020 Bain and Company survey of 160 U.S. surgeons showed the respondents expected surgery rates to be at 60% of pre-COVID-19 rates by June, and only 75% by September. Additionally, an article published in The Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery projected that even under the most optimistic circumstances, there would be a backlog of 1 million orthopedic surgeries two years after the end of elective surgery deferment. 

In other words, there is currently far more demand for elective surgeries than there is capacity. This creates a dilemma for medical device manufacturers: on which product lines should they begin ramping up production and marketing/sales efforts to ensure they are ready to reap the rewards once the pent-up demand is unleashed?

A logical starting point is situations where patient need is greatest or most urgent—those at risk of a precipitous deterioration or an adverse event if their surgery continues to be delayed. Patients who are in great pain from their conditions (especially if they are unable to work) would most likely also fall into the high-priority group. The need increases even more if value-based payments make up a significant portion of surgeon revenue since they are more invested in the long-term outcomes.

Still, that may not be the right decision for every hospital or health system. Some may instead choose to ease back into elective surgeries by focusing on simpler, higher-volume procedures that carry lower risk to help them make up lost revenue quickly.

They may also look upon it as an opportunity to revamp workflows to improve efficiency and throughput, starting small and building out from there. This approach might include breaking traditional geographic barriers by directing some patients to their hospitals or clinics in neighboring counties to reduce costs, spread the workload, or take advantage of a concentration of surgical expertise as they bring their organizations back up to speed.

The reality is there is no single, simple answer. With so many options available, medical device manufacturers will need more than past sales figures to forecast production and marketing needs. They will need insights into where the greatest opportunities exist by county so they can ensure they have adequate supplies to meet the demand—wherever it leads. This is where sophisticated predictive and prescriptive analytics can help them identify trends and avoid missteps that can further damage already significantly reduce revenue.

Understanding the Patient Landscape

The key to informed decision-making is understanding what types of elective surgery are typically most prevalent in each county and whether there has been a noticeable decline in those surgeries from 2019 to 2020. This information should then be overlaid against publicly available data showing the impact of COVID-19 by county. Counties that have the highest instances of the virus by population, as well as the highest fatality rates, are the ones that will be most likely to have the highest backlogs of elective surgeries overall. Putting the two together shows which surgeries have the highest probability of being in high demand once restrictions are lifted.

For those medical device manufacturers that want to get more granular, analytics offer the ability to dig even deeper. By adding data on demographics (such as age and gender), psychographics, pre-existing conditions, recently administered procedures, and social determinants of health (SDOH), life sciences organizations can create a more comprehensive risk score that shows the level of severity for each condition within that county, which could also have an effect on which surgeries will be prioritized.

Armed with this information, life sciences companies can begin ensuring that they have sufficient supplies/equipment for each region, educational materials for surgeons and patients, copay support, and other necessities to meet the demand as soon as providers once again begin scheduling elective surgeries at high volume levels. At the same time, they can avoid wasting money and resources on procedures that are unlikely to show high demand, helping them avoid taking on more long-term debt.

Data in Practice

Here is an example of how this type of data analytics might work. A medical device manufacturer sees that sales of heart stents are down 50% in County A in 2020 versus 2019. Public data shows that County A was hit hard by COVID-19, and all resources over a two-month period were focused on managing the resulting surge.

The public data also shows that the trendline on COVID-19 patients is dropping rapidly, which means healthcare resources are freeing up. Because it is a smaller county, however, there is uncertainty whether the return of elective surgeries will focus on heart procedures or knee and hip replacements. A review of demographics and SDOH factors indicates that the overall population has been more prone to heart conditions than joint pain since they primarily have sedentary jobs and lifestyles, made worse by the fact they live in a food desert.

Taken together, these factors indicate that County A will likely prioritize heart procedures over joint replacements, which means the organization should begin working now to meet the upcoming demand.

Moving Forward

While much has been made about the revenue impact on hospitals and health systems of delaying elective surgeries, the effects have been felt further upstream as well. Many medical device manufacturers have watched helplessly as once-reliable sales channels dried up due to circumstances beyond their control.

Now that the market is beginning to open up, they need to proceed wisely to maximize financial gains while minimizing financial exposure. Sophisticated predictive and prescriptive analytics can help them determine where the best opportunities are—and the best strategies to take advantage of them.

Good Reads: Top 10 January Design News Articles

Ok, get ready. Here are the Design News January stories that broke through the firehose of news and made an impression on readers.

Simulation Brings Design Speed to NASCAR

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NASCAR racing teams are using a cutting-edge automated simulation workflow pioneered by D2H and Ansys to improve engineering design. The work reduces hands-on development time while integrating high-performance computing (HPC) to enhance and speed designs.

With just a week to prepare between races, NASCAR teams have traditionally spent hundreds of thousands of dollars on rigorous and time-consuming wind tunnel testing to advance race car aerodynamics. D2H and Ansys have created an automated Fluent workflow that eliminates much of the wind tunnel testing.

The simulation process accelerates the aerodynamic design and lets teams produce more designs without extra development time. It resolves issues in hours instead of days. “Our main development path is to use our aerodynamic experience and flow-field analysis of a current simulation to guide our next move,” Noah McKay, engineering director at D2H, told Design News. “We combine that with periodic, more complex simulations that can provide direct insights into what changes should be made and in what approximate magnitudes.”

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Using Workflow and HPS to Accelerate Design

McKay noted that the workflow greatly reduces hands-on development time and resolves design issues quickly. The simulation accomplishes this without sacrificing while remaining highly accurate. “To generate accurate results requires very high-quality meshes. These are typically very hard to achieve on the extremely complex geometry of a full race car model,” said McKay. “Simplification of the geometry is also not an option to get accurate enough results to drive the development of a very refined car where each change can be less than 0.5%.

The design process requires an integrated thread of software tools that McKay describes as a simulation chain. “We have built an automated process that can check and give CAD corrections to get to clean, full-detail geometry and then mesh and submit to solve on a high-performance compute cluster,” said McKay. “The automated workflow combines all of the software tools in the simulation chain including Ansys Fluent and Ensight and gives nearly a single push button from start to end of a process including results and analysis.”

What makes the simulation possible is HPC. The process accelerates the speed of the simulation and guides design adjustments. “HPC has definitely helped. Large solutions run faster than ever, and increased accuracy has driven us to larger and larger models. We have also leveraged improvements in Ansys Fluent to drop solve times,” said McKay. “There are efficiency gains in the computations as well as more efficient processing of large datasets. Additionally, with the higher quality meshes, Ansys Fluent has made it possible to shorten simulation iterations with more aggressive solution controls to drive to convergence much faster than in the past.”

Simulation Can Match or Beat Real-World Testing

As engineers began to utilize simulation – and as the simulation process improved – it became clear that the results from simulation were less time-consuming than wind tunnels. “This is a complicated comparison because we are comparing very different tools. The wind tunnel can produce a result on a single item very quickly with good accuracy. With CFD simulation in Ansys Fluent, we can now achieve the same accuracy,” said McKay. “That is a recent development in CFD to achieve a resolution to understand the small magnitude changes. These large models take hours to solve from start to finish, so they are slower than a single wind tunnel run by orders of magnitude.”

The simulation lets the team increase the amount of testing overall. “The difference is a wind tunnel test can produce approximately 35 runs over a 10-hour test window and depending on your budget, you may do that as often as once per week,” said McKay. “There are now cost containment regulations that limit wind tunnel testing to approximately 100 hours per year, making the total data collected from a wind tunnel much less than can be done in CFD. With CFD, we can run every day and night producing around 5-10 runs per 24 hours or even significantly higher with added HPC and CAD designer budget.”

The Cost and Time Savings of Simulation

The HPC process also offers more information about each potential change in the design. “So over the course of the week, we can at least match, and with appropriate resources, triple or quadruple what can be done in the tunnel. On top of that, every CFD run gives many orders of magnitude more information about each change,” said McKay. “Not only do we know the overall forces and if there is a performance improvement, but we also get insights into the full flow field where we can pinpoint the effect. That allows us to develop much more effectively.”

Race cars are often altered between weekly races. While the cars are optimized at the beginning of the season, they’re often changed on the fly between weekly races. “Racing is a weekly-evolving sport like any competitive professional sport. Top-level teams build new cars almost weekly to incorporate all new developments derived from recent testing,” said McKay. “These developments can be all over and under the car to affect the flow field in advantageous ways.”

Rob Spiegel has covered manufacturing for 19 years, 17 of them for Design News. Other topics he has covered include automation, supply chain technology, alternative energy, and cybersecurity. For 10 years, he was the owner and publisher of the food magazine Chile Pepper.

Structur3d Offers Rapid Desktop 3D Printing of Rubber Parts

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Soft elastomer rubber materials have seemingly been overlooked by the 3D printing industry. But Canadian startup Structur3d (pronounced “structured” with the “3” as an “e”) has introduced the Inj3ctor Platform, a new desktop solution for injection molding rubber parts. The company says its goal is to create new products with factory-grade rubber materials, like silicones and polyurethanes.

The ability to 3D print prototypes and actual products promises to save time and money while providing the potential for mass customization of products.

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The Inject3r can create parts like this silicon sparkplug boot.

According to Structur3d, the Inj3ctor is the first 3D print system to combine the principles of injection molding with 3D printing. By using 3D-printed molds, the Inj3ctor employs material cartridges to mix and inject 2-component flexible materials to create any customizable shape. The result is production-quality products using factory-grade rubber materials, like silicones and polyurethanes, rather than prototypes made with more typical printer-friendly materials.

Regular 3D-printed rubbers don’t usually meet manufacturing standards, which has limited 3D printed rubbers to prototype applications. Structur3d’s Inj3ctor system combines desktop injection with 3D printing together to create a practical solution for manufacturing functional parts.

This provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional options such as hand casting molds or buying mass-production tooling. Structur3d is targeting automotive, industrial products, aerospace, academia, energy, and medical industries. Consumer goods where the buyer customizes some portion of the design, such as custom design in shoes, another possible application of the technology.

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Structur3d co-founder and COO Andrew Finkle.

“We saw a gap in the materials available, which was primarily limited to plastics and metals,” explained co-founder and COO Andrew Finkle. “We wanted to produce parts with silicones and polyurethanes.”

Their solution was to print molds and then inject those desired materials to create production-grade soft rubber parts. “The 3D printing of plastics and is already installed can be used to quickly make a mold and we can fill this mold using positive pressure and mixing materials as we inject.”

Those injected materials are typically a two-part material, and those components need to be mixed homogeneously before filling the cavity in the newly printed mold. Getting the two parts to mix correctly was one of Structur3d’s bigger engineering challenges,” reports Finkle “For the injector a lot of it comes down to the fluid mechanics,” he said. “We spent a lot of time on that.”

To use the Inject3r, product developers design a mold using their regular CAD software. Then, they 3D print that part using the normal durable or dissolvable plastic that they’d usually put in their printer. Then they can choose from tens of thousands of liquid rubber materials, customizing it based on desired durability, flexibility, and cure time and use this in the Inject3r. Based on the user-selected mixing ratio and injection volume, the Inj3ctor fills in the mold, creating a fully customized, flexible product.

Ford has worked with the University of Waterloo on some projects to study the Inject3r’s utility in car manufacturing. “Our device allows them to redesign parts to use materials that have not traditionally been able to be used,” Finkle noted.

The company is also targeting Tier 2 seating suppliers to develop production-ready foams that help provide heating and cooling capabilities in those seats, he said. “The next thing is large volume. Can this be scaled up to produce a seat cushion or armrest and use different foaming materials?”

Of course, Structur3d isn’t focused on the car industry and is working with biomedical device makers, manufacturers, and even toolmaker Stanley Black and Decker. “We see, in that professional design and engineering space, as this being a key tool,” Finkle said.

Structur3d’s Inj3ctor Platform Bundle includes the Inj3ctor, an Ultimaker S5 3D printer, materials for both, and additional accessories.

 

Fundamentals of Gear Manufacturing

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Gears fill the cases of automotive transmissions and are widely used in aerospace applications, but these simple tools are deceptively complex to manufacture. We thought it would be good to take a look at the process to remind ourselves exactly what the important issues are in gear manufacturing, so we asked Adam Gimpert, president of Helios Gear Products.

Helios supplies gear manufacturers with machine tools, engineering tools, and consumable surfaces for those tools. They sell, service, and rebuild gear-making equipment and they even make their own gear tool sharpening machine for their customers.

Another service the company provides is education. Normally, Helios will offer day-long briefings on topics like “Fundamentals of Parallel Axis Gear Manufacturing,” but during a pandemic, such lectures aren’t practical. Still, Helios will provide an engineer to do a remote talk to customers who need their employees brought up to speed on some aspect of gear making.

With those credentials, Helios seems like the perfect source for our primer on gear making.

Hobbing

The primary process employed to turn blank slices of steel billet into meshing gears that can smoothly and efficiently transfer power between parallel shafts is called “hobbing.”

According to a Helios explainer, “Hobbing is a discontinuous generating cutting process that produces tooth forms about a cylinder. In simpler terms, hobbing uses a hob to cut gear external teeth and similar forms by meshing rotating rows of cutting edges through a blank. Most commonly, hobbing produces involute gears and splines, but it can also be used to produce serrations, sprockets, and custom tooth forms.”

Like on a lathe, a spinning cutting tool removes material from the blank. However, where a lathe holds the blank stationary, in a hobbing machine the blank spins in synchronization with the cutting tool to create the gear teeth. “The tool needs to spin at a perfect rate to generate the correct number of teeth,” explained Gimpert.

Hobbing is an appealing machine process because it is flexible. Hobbing machines can produce gears with different numbers of teeth from the same hob.

Gears can also be “re-hobbed,” if they have been slightly distorted by the heat treatment process and need their gear tooth profiles corrected. While re-hobbing requires the removal of very little material because the teeth have already been cut, that material has been hardened, so a specialized carbide cutting tool is needed for this process. An important shortcoming of the hobbing manufacturing process is that it is not suitable for cutting internal gear teeth, only external ones.

Power Skiving

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Helios Gear Products president Adam Gimpert.

Power skiving is a relatively new gear-making process that has been made possible by advances in machine tool design, CNC, and cutting tool technology, says Gimpert. It is similar to shaping (described below), but it is between 2 and 10 times faster than shaping, he said. A key feature is that power skiving can cut internal gears, unlike hobbing, and can do it more quickly than shaping can.

The machine tool needed for doing power skiving is similar in cost to a hobbing machine, but the cutting tools used are more costly, and more engineering work goes into preparing the job. The cutting tools are also very part-specific, so changing gear material requires a change to the cutting tool, according to Gimpert.

Worm Milling

Worm milling is a cutting process that uses a circular-saw-like tool to produce a helical thread that is called a “worm.” Modern high-speed 10,000 rpm cutting spindles make worm milling an efficient, productive process. These mills require rigid machine tool for high-quality worms. They may require special equipment to allow the cutting head to swivel to nearly parallel with the work axis.

Shaping

Shaping is a generating cutting process that uses a reciprocating cutting tool called a “shaper cutter” to produce a part. Shapers are very flexible, with the ability to cut both internal and external gears. The process requires a small clearance, so it can sometimes be used when hobbing cannot.

It is slow compared to hobbing because the reciprocating cutting motion is only cutting half the time. That reciprocation also requires a massive rigid structure to provide kinematic damping for modern high-speed machines.

Chamfer-Deburring

Cutting manufacturing processes may leave burrs on the resulting gears, which may cause damage and noise for gears in mesh. These burrs can be cleaned up manually using brushes or cutoff wheels. To speed up the deburring process, shops can do chamfer-deburring with machine tools. The frees workers to do other things while the automated machine smooths the gears.

Machine tools can also be used for chamfer-deburring. By using a machine, manual labor can be recovered for other uses, the deburring process itself will be more reliable and consistent, and automation can be implemented for improved productivity.

Generating Grinding

Another way to finish pre-cut gears is generating grinding. This uses a worm threaded grinding wheel meshing with a gear. As the two turn in synchronicity, the griding wheel continuously removes material to create a finished form. Generating grinding is a highly productive method for gear finishing that requires a dedicated gear grinding machine.

Form Grinding

Form grinding, which is also called profile grinding or single-index grinding, uses an abrasive tool to grind one tooth space or tooth flank at a time. This may be done with consecutive passes or in a single pass using a tool that is the conjugate form of the tooth space. Form grinding can be very flexible and generally less expensive than generating grinding. Form grinding requires a dedicated gear grinding machine.

Air Force PLM, Manus Award, Sensors and More Supplier News

Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) platforms continue to grow in feature sets and support of the digital thread. For example, the U.S. Air Force has selected Siemen’s Teamcenter software as the foundational system of record to support its digital acquisition and sustainment strategy for critical systems and technologies across the service.

In other news, Igus is seeking nominations for the Manus Award which honors the extraordinary and unique use of the company’s high-performance plastics in product design. Molex has introduced an accelerometer-based Road Noise Cancelling (RNC) sensor. Superior Sensor Technology has showcased differential pressure sensors for industrial applications that support up to seven selectable pressure ranges in one device. And much more.

You can read about these stories and others in this week’s supplier’s guide.

Friday Funny: A Colorful Take on Engineering

This amazing video draws a vivid description of life as an engineer, from the morning commute through the design of planes and bridges.

Rob Spiegel has covered manufacturing for 19 years, 17 of them for Design News. Other topics he has covered include automation, supply chain technology, alternative energy, and cybersecurity. For 10 years, he was the owner and publisher of the food magazine Chile Pepper.

Engineering Humor for the Ages

Classic engineering humor is smart, clever, witty, and sometimes dumb. If we missed any great ones, send them along and we’ll do a readers’ collection.

Rob Spiegel has covered manufacturing for 19 years, 17 of them for Design News. Other topics he has covered include automation, supply chain technology, alternative energy, and cybersecurity. For 10 years, he was the owner and publisher of the food magazine Chile Pepper.

How to Build a Better In-Vehicle Connectivity System

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Advancements in ADAS (advanced driver assistance systems), IVI (in-vehicle infotainment), and ADS (autonomous driving systems) have driven the significant increase in onboard cameras, sensors, displays, and computing systems. These complex systems require data interfaces that are flexible, easy to use and can transfer the data reliably, efficiently, and cost-effectively to ECUs (electronic control units) anywhere in the car. For automotive designers, a standardized approach to data interfaces is preferred over proprietary interfaces to leverage greater economies of scale and enable ease of integration and faster time to market.

The MIPI Alliance is advancing its wired interface solutions to meet the stringent requirements of next-generation vehicles. In this way, designers can leverage MIPI’s mobile specifications that are already widely deployed in automotive (particularly CSI-2 for cameras and DSI-2 for displays) for a standardized approach that offers built-in functional safety, security, noise immunity, scalability, and performance.

To learn more about how the MIPI Alliance can help designers develop products that can handle the ever-increasing amount of data flow in automotive systems, Design News caught-up with Hezi Saar, MIPI Alliance Board Member. 

Design News: There must be a number of vendors that supply these data interfaces. How does providing a standardized interface help?

Hezi Saar: Standardization is critical for the automotive industry’s system designers and developers because it not only reduces costs but also fosters greater interoperability and choice, as well as additional support services such as test and software resources provided by a growing ecosystem. In many ways, it is similar to the mobile environment in the early 2000s when MIPI Alliance formed with a focus on standardizing the camera and display interfaces for mobile phones. The standards developed helped to make smartphones a reality, spurring innovation, simplifying design costs, and improving time to market.

In-vehicle connectivity interfaces today are widely used and typically target lower speeds. Until MIPI A-PHY (see below), no clear standardized solutions existed for long-reach, high-speed asymmetric interfaces between various components (e.g., cameras, sensors, displays) and ECUs. The proprietary solutions that exist today have resulted in market fragmentation and, in turn, limited economies of scale. Plus, there are considerations around cost, scalability, wire-harness weight, noise immunity, power consumption, and potential points of failure that come along with the use of specialized bridge components to connect proprietary long-reach SerDes interfaces.

Along the way, standardization brings about a more vibrant ecosystem of interoperability, backward compatibility, and market coalescence around a clear roadmap. All of that ultimately adds up to helping the automotive industry concentrate its investments and energies on what’s most important—on the features that actually make our vehicles safer and smarter.

Design News: Tell me briefly about the new MIPI specification for automotive SerDes systems.

Hezi Saar: The newly released MIPI A-PHY v1.0 is a long-reach serializer-deserializer (SerDes) physical layer interface. The new specification provides an asymmetric data link in a flexible point-to-point or daisy chain topology, providing high-speed unidirectional data, embedded bidirectional control data, and optional power delivery over a single cable. Over a reach of up to 15 meters, the specification delivers high reliability (a packet error rate of <10-19 or less than one error in the lifetime of the car), high immunity to EMI effects in the demanding automotive environment, and data rates up to 16 Gbps with a roadmap to 48 Gbps.

A-PHY's primary mission is to transfer high-speed data between cameras, sensors, and displays and their related ECUs. Through the development of additional supporting end-to-end specifications, MIPI Automotive SerDes Solutions (MASS) will allow proven higher-layer protocols from MIPI (such as MIPI CSI-2 and DSI-2), and approved third-party protocols such as VESA’s DisplayPort and Embedded DisplayPort, to operate over physical links that may span an entire vehicle, eliminating the need for “bridges” and proprietary SerDes interfaces. For automotive design, this equates to simplified networks and reduced costs, weight, and development time. MASS offers unprecedented functional safety and security built-in at the protocol level, guided by the requirements in ISO 26262, which gives system-level engineers the architecture they need to build systems meeting ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) requirements at any level, from ASIL B to ASIL D. 

Design News: When will products developed with this specification be available?

Hezi Saar: Because of the generally longer design cycles within automotive, it is anticipated that MIPI A-PHY and the related MASS specifications will begin appearing in 2024 vehicles. It’s expected that the implementation process will begin with A-PHY while retaining bridge solutions and then will move over time to the fully integrated MASS system.

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Automakers are expected to integrate MIPI A-PHY into their systems in two phases.

John Blyler is a Design News senior editor, covering the electronics and advanced manufacturing spaces. With a BS in Engineering Physics and an MS in Electrical Engineering, he has years of hardware-software-network systems experience as an editor and engineer within the advanced manufacturing, IoT and semiconductor industries. John has co-authored books related to system engineering and electronics for IEEE, Wiley, and Elsevier.