Today, factories and production facilities are becoming more advanced in order to improve productivity and safety. These advances are based on converting to open or Ethernet network communication. Several technical requirements demanded of the equipment used at factories include support for open network communications protocols, such as PROFINET, EtherCAT, CAN, and Modbus. However, there are additional buses that provide high-speed, real-time performance and low power consumption to achieve high productivity, such as EtherCAT, PROFINET IRT, and SERCOSIII. In our first class, we will look at some of these protocols and their needs.