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example one : assembly

 

Iron

Thanks for interesting presentation

 

Iron

Thank you Warren for an interesting class

 

Iron

Thank you so much for this course!  Examples were great.

Iron

Thank you Warren, Great lecture!

Minechoise for examples by order of appearing:

1st example - Assembler,- massive production make it cheaper, and design not must be too complicate

2nd - C at 1st version, then make decision for add assembler code for critical sections, 32KB of flash and 8K of RAM must be more than enough for such device as counter

3rd - harder to decide, due architecture of MCU wich not known for me, but for fist look - Assembler.

Iron

Thnak you Warren for such nice course!

Iron

Thanks Warren, have a great weekend.

Iron

@All- Ok, time to go. Hope you all learned something useful this week!

Iron

@plazok- FPGA is Field Programmable Gate Array- programmable logics lets you define your own hardware..

Iron

Thank you very much for the class.

Iron

Field Programmable Gate array

Iron

@mharkins- Me too!

Iron

?What does FPGA stand for?

Iron

That was boot loader (Gotta stop multitasking!  :)

Iron

Warren, Thanks so much for the classes. There is so much I need to learn still, but I'm eagerly looking forward to it.

Iron

@mharkins- Ok, got it. I misunderstood. Start-up vs Boot-up...

Iron

@vid- my next class is on FPGAs. You should suggest a C programming techniques class to CEC, I think it would be popular.

Iron

@warren,  I'll usually do my startup in C.  Then go back and add assembly as required if I need to do special memory handling as in a bool loader etc.

Iron

really happy with this.  thank you so much

Iron

Still, other than the posting/audio problems, great class!!

Iron

@Bob- Understood. Lots of overhead with little benefit...

Iron

What would be your next class? Do you teach C programming techniques.

Iron

No, I've never liked C-PLUS-PLUS - Just like I've never liked FLASH much.

Iron

You can use CPlusPlus...

Iron

You are right- lol CplusPlus

Iron

@Bob- You can use C+ for MCUs but regular C is the most popular (by quite a bit) because it is less of a memory hog...

Iron

Oh, I think the posting drops one of the PLUS signs...

Iron

? Is there a C+ for MCUs? Or has everyone the past 2 days been abbreviating C ?

Iron

@All- any more questions? I will stick around for another 10min or so...

Iron

@All- it seems from reviewing your Votes that several of the decision criteria I talked about were used in making your decisions. That's great! Just keep these all in mind when you are doing your next design...

Iron

@garysxt- Tables for calculating values is very powerful. I should have brought that up in one of the examples. Thanx for bringing it up in the chat!

Iron

@All- a good point was made in a comment below. It is typically a good practice to do an initial 'boot' in assembly and then transition to the main program in "C". This can help make sure the boot is done correctly (setting clocks, PLL division, POR settings, etc. You typically want interrupts off during initialization too. Any, a good approach to think about using...

Iron

? @gartsxt- It can be difficult to implement table jumps in C, but if you have a clean way to implement them (that is easy for someone else to understan) that can work fine.

OK. I usually use tables as a replacement for calculating values. You are right, computed jumps can be a nightmare to deal with, and I have found some low end development tools get confused when debugging these structures in C.

Iron

@Encinitas- If you have enough memory space C+ can work too. Just depends on trade-off of bigger memroy vs development time...

Iron

@gartsxt- It can be difficult to implement table jumps in C, but if you have a clean way to implement them (that is easy for someone else to understan) that can work fine.

Iron

C+ has a huge memory footprint. Embedded products have relatively limited memory.

Iron

@dekek- You would need to do have some security (encryption/decryption) to protect the meter from 'hacking'. Most of the protocols can include this feature...

Iron

? Earlier this week you mentioned look up tables for assembly. I have used them in C as well. Did you say that because C typically is not very efficient in dealing with tables?

Iron

@gamatec- C is probably fine in that case. Maybe Assembly for just a few routines that need interrupts turned on or off or for very special inner loop operations. Depend on your key function...

Iron

? How about C+ (avoid NEW operator to prevent heap issues). Classes allow better abstraction and each design decision can be encapsulated in its own method. The comiler will inline all the little functions.

 

Thanks Warren - great job this week.

And thanks Lauren and Digi-Key!

Iron

@Bob- Yep, malloc() and free() are dynamic functions and require lots of overhead as lists get large. If you can use static structures or build your own linked lists that would be better (more predictable timing).

Iron

? If I have a Cortex-M microcontroller running at 200MHz, why do I need assembly ?

@Jpd- Raspberry Pi is a good platform to use for learning C and MCus. Lots of good docs and examples. BeagleBone is another possibility...

Iron

? So, what woudl you recommend as a way to learn programming in C for an ARM?  Raspberry Pi?

Iron

?how would you keep the smart meter from being hacked by someone wanting to force "net metering"?

Iron

? In a Digi-Key class from two weeks ago (Introduction to Real-Time Kernels), the point was made to avoid using C's malloc() & free() because they fragment memory, which can lead to disaster when you finally want to allocate something and there's no space for it to fit. I guess the question is, have you ever been burned by this, Warren? Are there work-arounds?

Iron

@All- Please use a leading "?" when directing a question to me

Iron

Thank you for the presentation

So, what woudl you recommend to start to learn C programming for an ARM?  Raspberry Pi?

Iron

Thanks Warren & Lauren.

Iron

Thank you Lauren and Warren for the nice presentation, have a great week end.

Iron

Great presentation, Tanks Warren and Luren.

Iron

Thank you.  I am facing this decision right now and it will be good to have some ideas to bring to the table.

Iron

Thanks, Warren, Lauren and Digi-key!

Thank you, good stuff.

Iron

Excellent set of lectures. Thought the anaysis of the design criteria and language selection was a very good tool to use.  Thanks very much Warren.

Iron

Thank you Warren presenting these lectures. 

Thank you Lauren, Design News and Digi-key

Iron

Thanks Warren for great presentation.

Iron

Great course Warren. Practical. Thank You Warren and Lauren.

Iron

Thank you for an interesting week

Iron

liked this session the best.  Thanks Warren & Lauren!

Iron

Thanks Warren...Very useful for me.

Iron

Thank you for the lecture series Mr. Miller.

Iron

Assembly for initial boot, switching to C modules when C is available.

Iron

?try FLOWCODE from www.matrixmultimedia.com its fantastic its amixture of c & asmbly its very easy ?

Thanks for this info Mr. Miller.

Iron

Thanks Warren, it was a fun class.  Thanks Lauren.

Iron

Thank you Warren, Lauren, and Digi-Key.

Gold

Thank you Warren and Lauren for the lectures!

Thanks for this info Mr. Miller.

Iron

Excellent series, thanks all! Have a great w/e!

Iron

Thanks Warren.  Very good info and easy to digest!

Iron

how would you keep the smart meter from being hacked by someone wanting to force "net metering"?

Iron

Great info! Thanks! 

C and assembly in critical sections

Iron

I have a complete 3Phae meter app - C+ only -- no assy.

 

Iron

@Derek - barrel shifter hardware can shift X number of bits right or left in one cycle, rather than a many-cycle series of single-bit shifts.

Iron

We are on slide 16.

Platinum

Performance would make me lean towards assembly.

Iron

c due to large libraries avaliable ,& peripherals specially Zigbee &Bluetooth

Rule of thumb: call on ASM to do heavy lifting (timing, etc) when C is not able to meet requirements

 

Iron

example 3 would start off in C with asm where needed later.

Iron

C but Assembly if more practical for application.

Iron

C in order to get product working; upgrades in software could be done later after the code is tweaked in assembly

C+ if the platform supports it, C otherwise, assembly where it's the only choice

Iron

C all day, asm for specific functions.

I'd use C perhaps with some inline assembly where performance might call for it.

Iron

Performance would make me lean towards assembly.

Iron

C almost always

 

Iron
C handsdown with the knockout
Iron

Example 3: C with inline assembly

Iron

Would use C for primary development, but would also use Assy for time critical routines.

Iron

Also, C due to schedule contraints and reuse requirement for a platform.

Iron

C with critical tasks in Assembly

Example 3: C with inline assembly

Iron

C + assembly.  Too complex for an entirely assembly, but some sections appear to need extremely tight code which *might* need to be done in assembly.

Iron

We are on slide 15.

Platinum

CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC

Thanks @mharkins !

Iron

Example 3  C and Assembly.

Iron

Warren's question was: Which would you vote for if you could only use "C" or Assembly?

Platinum

I would use mixed C and assembly for example 3

Iron

berrel shift typically refers to shifting a word a specific number of bits in one clock cycle

Iron

Use C for the reusable platform. ASM for performance (timing) segment.

Iron

Barrel shift is multiply/divide by powers of 2

Iron

Combination of C & Assembler

Iron

Use C for program flow and calcs. Call assembly routines for bit shifts, sensor monitoring, and interrupts.

Gold

Example 3 would be a mix of C and asm.  C for the wireless network and complex calculations.  The supprt for the high speed sensors and would be written and debugged in C first and optimized in asm as needed.

I see this as being a mix mode of C and assembler. One of the big issues is the clock, 20 Mhz clock would make doing this in C quite feasible

Example 3: C due to Amount of code, complexity of design reqs, algorithm not finalized (experimenting), etc.

Iron

The only speed issue on a SM seems to be if it's a3Phase unit. The MSP430 has a specialized unit with Sigma Dleta ADC built in -- thee "channels" (7 inputs) for three phases. -- I would look for specialized hardware -- if it was 3Phase. One phase is simpler (220V -- household) Can do with simpler chips.

Iron

We are on slide 14.

Platinum

What is "Barrel shift"?

Iron

Example 3: C with critical time constraint hardware I/O in assembly

Iron

Application 3 - C ( reuse, amount of code, complex algorithm & schedule)

Iron

Speed critical in assembly, COM & high level functions probably in C

Iron

example 3 == mostly C with expectation for assembler during measurements

Iron

C for example 3. much more complex. Mix in special asm routines as needed.

Iron

Application 3:  Mainly C with some assembly sub routines as required for execution time, etc

Iron

Perhaps this can be a mix - C for most of the functions, but high-speed measurements in assembly.

Iron

We are on slide 13.

Platinum

Example 3: C with some assembly for time critical parts.

Iron

The PIC16 stack size is small, requiring compromises in the C implementation.

Iron

both for example 3

Iron

Usually I use C to program first. If the speed doesn't satisfiy requirement. I will use assembly to modify some critical code section.

Iron

Does the analog H/w integrate the KWhr during sleep times ? Otherwise is sampling .

?are PIC 16 better designed for c or assembly?why ?

C   (my posts aren't posting!)   :)

Okay, I'll go with C because of ARM this time. Networking is a bear in assembly. Probably floating point calcs needed.

Gold

C, but maybe assembly for critical routines

Iron

I would feel bad about using C due to the potential for millions of units once production of meters starts but for development due to the lack of settled Smartgrid standards I would use C.

Iron

For a project of this size I would push for C/C+ . Create reusable objects for each of this interfaces, especially since this is the first of a new generation.

for smart meter ,c is much easier due to large program length

C for arm, better debugging too

definitely C, to leverage the communications libraries that should be available for free.

Iron

I vote for Assembly. With a structured coding style, it's as maintainable as C and much faster.

C.  I presume the NXP family allows future upgrades for additional funtionality.

Assembly for Example 1. C for Example 2.

Iron

C   Application 2 is using a more complex uC, design needs communications and probably a fair number of calculations. Maintainability favors C.

Iron

Warren's question was: Which would you vote for if you could only use "C" or Assembly?

Platinum

no brainer: C. THe ARM was designed with C in mind. (the PIC16 wasn't) There will also be network layers for comms and there may already be libraries available.

Iron

Prefer C, for better development. BTW, it's on the power line, why battery instead of a simple AC-to-DC?

APPlication 2 - C ( new design - code reuse in future, complex interface) - have to ensure we can minimize memory usage

Iron

C for Smart meter application.

Iron

I would vote for C for Example 2. New design, amount of code to be written,  goal of easy to reuse code for a platform, etc.

Iron

Use C for Ex. 2. No fun to write Assy code for ARM.

C.  Any sort of key exchange for secure communication would be tough in assembly.

I used C on PIC project and never have any problem. Acyually I just used assembly in C for implementation matrix DSP processing such as conclution.

Iron

I would use C. Development of platform, Communications more complex.

Iron

C for smart meter

Iron

example 2: use C

Iron

C: it's a sophisticated project. Assembly would be very time consuming and complicated to manage properly.

Iron

Meter is a good C project (don't need C+ IMO).

Iron

using c on smart meter due to vast program

Example 2 - C for sure

Iron

C with Superloop or FreeRTOS, mostly sleeping for example 2

Iron

A bit more complex, wireless easier to implement in C (libraries) - go with C

Iron

The meter is a C+ project -- done this. Tough with anything weaker.

Iron

I"m going with C on the Smart Meter app

Iron

I would vote for C.

Iron

Example 2 - assembly on PIC is easy because it doesn't require any special registers such as PWM.

Gold

Assembly: Due to time constrains and taht original code is in Assembly

Iron

Using C language and Cortex-M microcontroller, I can use the same library (custom) with different manufacturers: TI, ST, NXP, SiLabs ....

We are on slide eight.

Platinum

C with some functions in assembly.

This is just like a real election with the new voting machines.  This is the third time I am voting and the first two votes got lost.

Iron

finish it in the language it started in: ASM.

Iron

MayanBlood - either another application taking CPU cycles or a virus.

 

Iron

If I wasn't familliar with the processor, it take longer to "learn" the existing code (and processor) to proof it, than to code from scratch in C.

Iron

In C language, I can use the same library (custom) on various types of microcontrollers: 8051, PIC, AVR, CORTEX-M ....

@MayanBlood - Have you the latest version of Flash?

Iron

POSTINGS ARE GETTING LOST AGAIN

 

Probably assembly.  The small stack size would worry me in C, the application is pretty simple and you have code you can reuse

Reuse ASM new features  in C

Iron

 Assembly due to code reuse and likelihood of developers knowing the old system. If memory and performance are considerations, keep in mind the PIC does not have a true stack pointer which makes it C unfriendly.

Iron

I have this crazy problem Firefox and Chrome will not start the audio until about 8/10min later, IE will play immediately but it will stop the audio very often. Any ideas?

Iron

C (voted earlier, didn''t show up...)

Iron

It could be done in C but I would need a reason not to use Asm.

Iron

Assembly as long as you have ready code for UART, etc.

Gold

assembly due to code reuse

Iron

ASM would be simpler

Iron

Guess it looks like C for this one.

Iron
Iron

most codes in C, only a small fraction in Assembly

Iron

We are on slide seven.

Platinum

Example 1: Assemby due to memory size and time constraints (re-use assembly). Also, not too much programming complexity. 

Iron

Been there, and did it in C

Iron

Warren's question was: Which would you vote for if you could only use "C" or Assembly?

Platinum

Problem Situation: SMPS control with Decision generating bit set or Bit clear. In this case the C compiler code was generating a bit clear before the bit set = Lots of headache.

 

Iron

biomed app measuring ECG waveform, identifying waveform anomalies, with alarms.

Iron

We are on slide six.

Platinum

battery operated, intelligent sensor data processing

Iron

voice is viberating, on & off

Successful designs that evolve as time passes and developers move on.

 

Yes, motor control would be cool.

Iron

love the example on Slide 4! My field! :)

Iron

? Camarillo has a good point with medical.  What is the difference when there is a 3rd party software validation?

Iron

One with multiple sensors, ADC, Interrupts, and user interface.

Iron

Can we talk about application specific MCU, particularly from the aspect of programming?

Iron
Ok. Vote C w rtos. NEXT
Iron

Computational intensive with hard real time I/O requirement.

Iron

Medical design.... safety with presentation?

Iron

We are on slide four.

Platinum

@Bob Loy. I tried several times I only get the opening ..talk radio and then silence. Thank you

Iron

Warren's question was: What type of design would you like to see at Fight Club?

Platinum

We are on slide three.

Platinum

@Don H, thank you for the feedback

Iron

@MayanBlood - try reloading the page.

Iron

(Rapid click, multiple times, on the PLAY/STOP button, it'll resync.)

I still vote for Pascal -- Mikroe -- available from DigiKey

Iron

I use assembly for my projects

Iron

@MayanBlood, I am getting good audio.

Iron

Is audio still good? I heard voice starting and then it was cut off

Iron

I go with assembly when the fighting gets dirty.

Iron

Greetings from Chicago

 

Iron

wait, wait C+ and Pascal just jumped into the ring. It's a brawl!

Iron

Hello from Toronto

 

Iron

Ready and willing

 

Iron

Hi all - The audio is live!

and C delivers a stiff uppercut ...

Iron

Hello from sunny SE Lake Simcoe Ontario Canada

Iron

HEllo from SoCal.

 

Iron

Hello from Manizales, Colombia.

@All- RU Ready to Rumble!

Iron

Good evening from Valladolid, Spain

Iron

@MikeH: What kind of work do you do down in Binghamton. I'm up in East Syracuse.

Crazy is the new normal...

Iron

@chyrw, audio always start at top of the hour sharp.

Gold

@Bob Loy, Which Part?  I know where I fit in!  ROFLMAO (That was an insanely wicked laugh!  :)

Iron

crazy isn't normal ??

Iron
@chyrw = The audio bar will appear at the top of this page at 2 PM Eastern

> And "normal" people want to know why coders are so crazy!   :)  -- I resemble that remark!

Iron

Is the audio available?

Iron

Hello from Binghamton, NY

Iron

Greetings from WDI

Iron

Hello from Albuquerque.

Iron

And "normal" people want to know why coders are so crazy!   :)  

Testing! is it working?

Iron

Happy Friday people!

A beautiful 75 degF in Minneapolis today.

Iron

Hello from sunny Valdez

I still use TP (DOS) for minor quick-n-dirty helper apps. Nothing in MCU design, though. I never got TPW (Windows) and always wanted to try it, but other things took priority.

Iron

@jjrochow@ra.rockwell.com - >Bob Loy:OK...as a learning experience it makes some sense..but I don't think that reasons 1 & 2 are valid.  Hey have fun!  You ought to really go hog wild and write the new language in itself and bootstrap the whole thing!!

LOL - I used to think that a language that can be written in itself was the coolest thing in computer science. Actually, I still do, but from a practical standpoint I believe that having an interpret/compile kernel "off to the side" is probably much more efficient. There's enough ivory in my tower already without looking for more!

Iron

@joe  Been there, done that!  :)

Iron

Turbo Pascal (DOS) is on my "spinner!"   Still use it, though not very often.  :)

It is truly embarrassing when you're just buzzing along, turning out some of the most brilliant code you've ever conceived when you hit that stumbling block and it just ain't workin'.   Then you realize the include (or function/procedure/called_whatever) you're using is in a completely different language!!  (sigh) (grin)

I occasionally use Pascal!

Iron

Is Pascal language still used?

Iron

Aloha from Montana

Gold

Hello from Rockwell Automation where it's always sunny! and warm! Actually 73F and cloudy.

@mharkins- yep the process is the same. It is important to understand how to measure the tools to see which is best for the job. Hopefully todays class will help folks who need to better understand some of the 'metrics' used for measuring...

Iron

@joeFromOzarks.  Yes I remember "Twister".  Interesting use of the spinner!  LOL  Last time I was near a Twister spinner, my back didn't forgive me for a week!

Iron

hello from Mishawaka

Iron

@Joe- Cool idea. I learned Pascal and C at the same time and it was very confusing switching between homework assignments...

Iron

@warrenM  My point is that all these real world constrains ARE the determining factors of a "winner"  I've been coding since the 70s, embedded since the 80s.    The selection process is always the same.  Processor that does the job, with the most bang, for the least cost, with the best tools.  Coding?  Get the job done, with the least errors that meets the requirements.  Specifics of tools?  The tool that does the job the best, and the quickest.  LOL!

Iron

'Course, I'm old and a little forgetful...  :)

@mharkins - On ol' girlfriend bought me a repurposed Twister game spinner.   (Remember those?)  She taped over the numbers and had me write all of the coding languages I use – so I wouldn't (ever again) spend an hour writing the wrong syntax for the language I was (supposed to be) using!!   That spinner still hangs on my coding room wall, right next to my desk.  Yes, I still use it.  (grin)   Yes, I still MUST use it!!  :)

@bitbanger55 - ...stays at FC, LOL

Iron

@mharkins- My hope is that the experience of going thru some real world examples (simplified however due to our classtime constraints) will help develop your skills so that when you have your own selection process to do you will be able to do it more efficiently and with increased confidence...

It is the process we want to learn about more than the actual 'winner' for each example...

Iron

Be sure to follow @designnews and @DigiKeyCEC on Twitter for the latest class information. We encourage you to tweet about today's class using the hashtag #CEC.

Platinum

I have to ask, is this to be a theoretical exercise, or are all real world constraints part of the consideration (i.e. schedule, cost of time (implementation time), etc)?  If execution "speed" is the only consideration, then the outcome is skewed.  If ease of readability is the only criteria, then again the outcome is skewed.

Iron

I agree with mharkins' comment - you need various tools in the toolbox.

Iron

Greetings from Vermont

Iron

And then there's the Synapse Wireless units based on the Atmel ATMega that run a version of Python.  Not good for everything, but for certain embedded apps it's just the thing...

Iron

Florida in. Weather is ... Floridian.

Iron
Hi from sunny SoCal
Iron

Greetings from Colorado Springs on Friday morning.

Iron

Proposed function:  in an ISR, read an 8 bit  hardware register.  If bit 1 is set, do subroutine 1. If bit 2 is set, do subroutine 2, etc.  The subroutines are brief and you must call the subroutine plus exit the ISR in the shortest possible time.

Iron

@JoeFromOzarks  Couldn't agree more.  I'm a back yard mechanic at home, but I gotta say I like using the right tool for the right job.  Same with coding.  Usually first pass in C, optimize, then either recode sub routines that require it in Assy, or single inlines as needed for efficiency.  Both belong in the toolbox.

Iron

Please join our Digi-Key Continuing Education Center LinkedIn Group at http://linkd.in/yoNGeY

Platinum

@FCsuggestion -- image recognition , such as used for check scanning to deposit a check ... must interpret orientations, check and interpret type printed, hand printed and signature characters  for correctness ... if standing at an ATM, don't want to take too long, but longer OK if remote sending (like from smart phone) is OK??

Iron

@All- feel free to post your example in the chat prior to the class so we can all see it..

Iron

@All- If you have some time prior to the class think about a specific function you would like to propose as a Fight Club topic. We may have time at the end to pick an additional example and I'd like each of you to propose a cabdidate.

Iron

@Warren

Nice touch with the Street Fighter picture.

Iron

Hi everyone. RU ready for Fight Club!

Iron

Then, there's always FORTH, if you want to start a language war.

IMHO, given equality in skill and proficiency coding in C and Assembler, and given the target hardware platform is equally accessible to both coding platforms, I would think it's an error to presuppose one coding platform is "better" than the other. 

We can debate (until the moo-cows come home) which one is faster in execution, which one is quicker to code and debug, which one is cheaper (.$$$/1k hardware and/or $$$,$$$ salary) to implement and which hardware platform is "the best."

I like to say "Use the correct tool for the job."   Usually, there is a fog-caked clarity determining which tool is most suitable or most effective for a specific task.

Given a choice (and a tie in all other considerations,) I'll choose the "IDE" providing the most entertainment (FUN) for a particular project.  (grin)  I'm easily entertained though...

Good afternoon from NY.

Iron

Good Morning from Beaverton, Oregon.

Iron

C is portable, kind of. Assembler commits you to a particular CPU/architecture . Since I've switched to C I only do assembler for low-level (tasking, stack/interrupts, atomic I/O) operations. Or using special CPU features, like the 8051 bit-addressing funnies.

TGIF, hello from Chicago

Iron

The streaming audio player will appear on this web page when the show starts at 2 PM Eastern time today. Note however that some companies block live audio streams. If when the show starts you don't hear any audio, try refreshing your browser. If that doesn't work, try using Firefox or Google Chrome as your browser. Some users experience audio interruptions with IE. If that doesn't work, the class will be archived immediately following our live taping.

Platinum

Good morning everyone.

Iron

Good morning from Scottsdale, AZ

Iron

I gotta say, I've designed fire alarm systems (including smoke detectors) and used both assembly and C for those designs at various times.  I know in my mind which one wins, so this will be interesting.

Iron

Good morning from Panama City, FL.

Iron

Good morning from Tennessee

Iron

Bright, temperate and so far a lovely day in Mississauga, Ontario.

Heading into a long weekend with lots of home chores to keep me busy and out of trouble.

Iron

Be sure to click 'Today's Slide Deck' under Special Educational Materials above right to download the PowerPoint for today's session.

Platinum

Morning from Portland Oregon

Iron

Good morning from sunny Michigan

Iron

Good morning from Ottawa, Canada.

Iron

As Mr. Aberaham Lincoln stated in the First Inauguration Address, "We are not enemies, but friends", C and Assembly are not enemies but friends.

Iron

Good Mroning from GA

Iron

Good morning from Mobile, AL

With a name like bitbanger55 how can you ask that question?  We come ready to bang heads over bits! (Huh, sounds like a typical day in the office to me!  :)

Iron


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Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.
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