In the old days, it was common to excite the sin and cos windings with sinusoidal signals that were 90 degrees out of phase (sin and cos). Then when the shaft rotates, the rotor winding produces a fixed amplitude sine wave, whose phase shifts in proportion to the shaft angle. The control system must then resolve the phase angle of the rotor winding against a reference wave. This was a relatively easy thing to do with analog circuitry. The reference waveform could be the position command signal. The command signal to the actuator is then proportional to the phase error between the resolver rotor and the reference signal.
Most of the new 3D printers and 3D printing technologies in this crop are breaking some boundaries, whether it's build volume-per-dollar ratios, multimaterials printing techniques, or new materials types.
Independent science safety company Underwriters Laboratories is providing new guidance for manufacturers about how to follow the latest IEC standards for implementing safety features in programmable logic controllers.
Automakers are adding greater digital capabilities to their design and engineering activities to promote collaboration among staff and suppliers, input consumer feedback, shorten product development cycles, and meet evolving end-use needs.
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