Resistor consideration is related to instantaneous or repeated peak MOV power dissipation, too. Few engineers realize that a lightning stroke does not consist of just one pulse, but five or more together. I proved this years ago with a camcorder, and viewing a lightning strike frame by frame I saw separate bolts of lightning in every other video frame.Our eyes perceive a lightning strike as flickering, but in reality each strike is a series of discharges until the cloud voltage drops low enough to stop altogether.
Consider each meter is also sealed environment with a glass cover, much like a greenhouse but without ventilation. Now consider a typical meter sitting on a outside, south-facing wall on a home in the deep south. Internal temperatures can easily rise up near the upper operating limits for most electronic components.
Both MOV and resistor power ratings must be greatly de-rated to insure long term reliablility of both. De-rating is also required for other electronic components. Proper testing of components requires both good equipment and use of an environmental chamber during testing. This type of testing reveals flaws and design issues with components not previously apparent or even considered as a problem.
With record-breaking temperatures around the country, it's hard to find a more punishing environment for electronic components. Perhaps a oil well probe lowered down to the botton of an oil to make temperature and resistance measurements might be a worse environment, but that's just a temporary high temperature environment, while a electric meter is on-going day after day A wall ona building is even worse than the passenger compartment in most vehicles. At least in the case of vehicles, electronics can be located under car seats or behind the dashboard, away from direct sun exposure.
Excellent article, very thorough and detailed. Few people realize how difficult it can be to specify a simple resistor. It's also quite common to use two resistors in series to satisfy redundant failure analysis.
A middle school team from Rochester, Mich., has again nabbed the grand prize in the annual international Future City Competition, which drew students from 37 regions of the United States, as well as from England and China.
The word “smart” is becoming the dumbest word around. It has been applied to almost every device and system in our homes. In addition to smartphones and smart meters, we now hear about smart clothing and smart shoes, smart lights, smart homes, smart buildings, and every trendy city today has its smart city project. Just because it has a computer inside and is connected to the Web, does not mean it is smart.
Are you being paid enough? Do you want a better job? According to a recent survey Manpower released just before Engineers Week, employers and engineers don't see eye-to-eye about the state of US engineers' skills and experience.
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