In practice, oversampling is implemented in order to achieve cheaper higher-resolution A/D and D/A conversion. For instance, to implement a 24-bit converter, it is sufficient to use a 20-bit converter that can run at 256 times the target sampling rate.
Great article! Sometimes you have a fast ADC and a lot of time for a precision measurement. In 1989 we scrapped a whole board of high precision analog components on a Shuttle experiment which took 5 seconds to produce a single 12 bit digitization by supeimposing a precision sine wave on the DC raw data and summing 2048 samples from the 12bit ADC. We achieved 18 bit precision in one second. The accuracy was improved by intermingling precision references and board temperature measurements, and applying post processing corrections. (US Patent 4973914).
Thanks, Nancy. Yes, before you think about digitizing analog signals you must know much about them. Unfortunately, some engineers jump in and specify data-acquisition equipment they later find doesn't give them the results they expect. Early in my career I made similar mistakes.
I really appreciated your explanation of quantization errors and possible solutions, as well as the trade-offs that are involved. It seems to me from reading your blog that an important first step of any project would be to have a very good understanding of the precision required so that one knows what effect quantization errors would have and how far one should go in attempting to reduce or eliminate them. Thanks for the great information, Jon!
Robots that walk have come a long way from simple barebones walking machines or pairs of legs without an upper body and head. Much of the research these days focuses on making more humanoid robots. But they are not all created equal.
The IEEE Computer Society has named the top 10 trends for 2014. You can expect the convergence of cloud computing and mobile devices, advances in health care data and devices, as well as privacy issues in social media to make the headlines. And 3D printing came out of nowhere to make a big splash.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.