HOME  |  NEWS  |  BLOGS  |  MESSAGES  |  FEATURES  |  VIDEOS  |  WEBINARS  |  INDUSTRIES  |  FOCUS ON FUNDAMENTALS
  |  REGISTER  |  LOGIN  |  HELP
shjacks45
User Rank
Bronze
Misunderstood Tin
shjacks45   10/18/2011 5:58:16 AM
NO RATINGS
1. Although steels are metastable at room temp it takes dry ice temperatures to induce phase change. "Tin pest" disease proceeds slowly at first at 10 centigrade. Im never saw any reference in military journals that Napoleon or his officers attributed loss of buttons as significant.

2. Group 5 and group 6 alloys: bismuth, antimony, arsenic, tellurium, selenium, etc.; accelerate tin pest. Copper, Silver, Cadmium, Indium etc. alloys reduce tin phase change. Copper and Silver as intermetallic compounds Cu3Sn and Ag3Sn. Lead does not not form a solution in solid Tin, so it does not prevent tin phase change. However 50:50 Pb:Sn will leave a Lead matrix behind.

4. Pure Tin was unlikely a button material as it was too soft to hold the coats closed. More likely a Pewter Tin-Antimony-Lead alloy.

4. Russians had a Tin coin few years back. They wrestled with the Tin pest problem.

5. Tin whisker formation is proportional to Tin content of solder. Tin-Lead Solder is usually reflowed which reduces surface stress but Bright Tin plating is not reflowed.

6. Although Lead causes neural issues in young mammals in infinitessimal amounts, Silver is much more toxic to adult humans.

Dave Palmer
User Rank
Platinum
Thermodynamic stability and metastability
Dave Palmer   10/6/2011 4:36:51 PM
NO RATINGS
Karen, beta tin (white tin) is stable at room temperature, not metastable.  Alpha tin (gray tin) becomes the stable phase below about 56°F.  So below 56°F, beta tin is metastable - it is no longer the lowest energy state, but there is still an activation energy associated with the phase transformation.

I think the term you wanted to use is "allotropic," not "metastable."

It's interesting how non-committal Le Couteur is about the historical veracity of the "Napoleon's buttons" story, given that it's the title of her book (although the story itself is actually only mentioned briefly in the introduction).

When people talk about "pure tin" in electronics applications, they mean that it is 97% pure or more.  However, I believe this still leaves enough room for alloying additions (antimony, bismuth, or lead) to suppress alpha tin formation.



Partner Zone
Latest Analysis
DIY candy, journeys to Mars, coding for road trips, and more. These STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) activity options will keep kids engaged this summer, from 10-minute activities to more advanced undertakings.
Nothing is more frustrating than developing a plan and then, in the heat of the battle, having to diverge from the plan when chaos happens.
Forget doping. Officials at this yearís Tour de France are looking for a very different form of cheating -- electric motors hidden inside the seat tubes of bicycles.
Through my first-hand experience at MEMS Engineer Forum in Japan, itís clear to me that the IoT is real and that the Japanese are amply prepared for it and are executing on it today.
A new fixings and fastening system for assembling structural, load-bearing composite components promises 54% better adhesion, plus less weight and better mechanical performance than current composite fixing designs.
More:Blogs|News
Quick Poll
The Continuing Education Center offers engineers an entirely new way to get the education they need to formulate next-generation solutions.
SEMESTERS: 1  |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6 |  7 | 8 | 9 | 10


Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.
Next Course June 28-30:
Sponsored by Proto Labs
Learn More   |   Login   |   Archived Classes
Twitter Feed
Design News Twitter Feed
Like Us on Facebook

Technology Marketplace

Copyright © 2016 UBM Canon, A UBM company, All rights reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Service