The P.I.D. algorithm question's answer should note that PID filers are or should be made to be 'tunable'. It comes back to the issues of accuracy and precision (how close to the exact set point do you need to get and stay without oscillation for example). The startup problem like also 'special cases' is usually also addressed in all PID algorithms. Choosing a 'P' - proportional setting such as 50% which is halfway between the starting point (first measurement) and desired point (temperature, fill position etc.) implements a sort of 'binary search' to move closer to the set point. In seeking the set point, now the parameters for 'I' Integral which is a sort of running average, and 'D' Derivative which is the slope or rate of change can be determined. In addition, prior knowledge of the controllers and sensors and other elements in the control system help to determine values for PID set points. There are many good tutorials on PID and PID tuning online - enjoy!
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