Silver-Zinc batteries are more complex systems that require a gas generator, tubular electrolyte reservoir, manifold, battery block, vent, and heating system. Limitations include low energy density (260Wh/L), long production lead times, and high cost.
Spin-activated batteries store electrolytes inside an ampoule or bladder, which is cut open when the projectile is fired, distributing the electrolyte throughout the cell stack. Spin-activated batteries are typically used to power minelets, communication jammers, and artillery projectiles.
High-power lithium metal oxide batteries, developed by Tadiran as the TLM Series, deliver high current pulses, high rate energy, and up to 20 years storage life due to low annual self-discharge (less than 1 percent per year).
Constructed with a carbon-based anode, multi-metal oxide cathode, organic electrolyte, and shut-down separator, TLM batteries can deliver up to 2Wh of energy with a nominal voltage of 4V, a discharge capacity of up to 1,100mAh, the ability to handle 5A continuous and 15A pulses, and a temperature range of -40C to 85C. These batteries comply with MIL-STD 810G specs for vibration, shock, temperature shock, salt fog, altitude, acceleration (50,000gn) and spinning (30,000 rpm), and UN 1642 and IEC 60086 standards for crush, impact, nail penetration, heat, over-charge, and short circuit. They can also be shipped as non-hazardous goods.
Unlike thermal/reserve and spin-activated batteries, lithium metal oxide cells permit instantaneous activation without the need for squibs or gas generators, and can be periodically tested to ensure system readiness to reduce the number of duds in missile guidance systems. Power can also be drawn intermittently, so they are not restricted to single-use applications.