Thanks for your comments, Ivan. Biodegradable plastics biodegrade into CO2 and water, the ingredients that they started as. That's what biodegradable generally means. Here are some definitions from the SPI:
Ann, thanks for another great article. I think your article hit the nail on the head about the decision-making process. Most companies these days say that sustainability is important to them, but very few are willing to pay extra for it.
If Material A is more expensive than Material B, I can make a case to management for Material A if I can show that using Material A rather than Material B will lead to a marketable improvement in product performance, a reduction in warranty costs, or elimination of a manufacturing step. But I can't make a case to management that using Material A will reduce harm to the environment, because the environment doesn't directly affect the company's bottom line.
The only exceptions would be if costly regulations restricting the use of Material B are likely, or if it is a high profile application where the use of Material A could be taken advantage of for marketing purposes.
What this means is that bioplastics suppliers need to bring prices in line with petroleum-based plastics, or else offer convincing performance benefits. This article shows that the suppliers are aware of this, and are trying to make it a reality.
Dave, thanks for your comments. I hope to get some more detailed, targeted input on that decision-making process during design. The bioplastics performance is now equal to or better than petro-based plastics in many cases. Cost is also coming down. In some markets, mostly consumer-related, the sustainability argument is at least a starting point. For example, witness Ford's programs to incorporate an increasing proportion of recycled content in its materials from suppliers:
This was a great description of the spectrum of bio polymers available. The inclusion of big company players like Dupont and BASF is a good indication that bio polymers will become better and cheaper in time. The avaialability of engineering grade polyamides that use bio stock can open up the doors to companies to be green without sacrificing any product performance.
I suspect they wouldn't degrade very quickly in a compost pile, either, but I wouldn't assume that's necessarily true. In any case, they do degrade, and In my experience as a gardener, the best compost piles made from n normal household waste should age for about 2 years or so before using them.
Plastics ands elastomers, thanks for commenting, but I don't speak Asian languages or read their scripts, nor do most of our readers. Can you try writing again in English? We'd like to know what you wrote.
Thanks for your comments, Tim. I was surprised at how far engineering bioplastics have come, and encouraged at the performance gains they've continued to make, as well as the gradually decreasing price differential.
Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications like aerospace and medical requires very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International.
Engineers at the University of San Diego’s Jacobs School of Engineering have designed biobatteries on commercial tattoo paper, with an anode and cathode screen-printed on and modified to harvest energy from lactate in a person’s sweat.
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