Pipistrel, founded more
than 22 years ago as the first private producer of aircraft equipment in
Yugoslavia, made its name manufacturing ultra-light hang gliders before moving
into lightweight aircraft, including gliders, motor gliders and high-efficiency
cruising planes, in reaction to market demands. While the company's models and
types of aircraft have evolved over the years, the consistent theme for
Pipistrel is producing planes that are both fuel-efficient and high
performance. To do so, the manufacturer has invested in and refined a product
development process that leverages composite materials and advanced 3-D design
techniques to achieve optimal aerodynamics.
"The main challenge in aviation is how to produce an
airplane that has the most possible lift while producing a minimal amount of
drag," says Tine Tomazic, research and development at Pipistrel. Given that the
selection of engines for Pipistrel's chosen types of aircraft is limited, it's
not engine choice that defines a particular model, but rather the outside shape
that becomes the key differentiator. "When you start to define the shape of a
plane, it becomes evident that even measurements below one tenth of a
millimeter can make a difference," Tomazic explains.
Pipistrel engineering team began aggressively working to address this challenge
about seven years ago. At the time, the firm used 3-D MCAD to design mechanical
systems on the aircraft; but the system fell short of leveraging the 3-D tools
to do any type of shape or surfacing work because of what the team considered a
precision deficiency. "Aerodynamics and shapes were drawn by hand and produced
in physical form by hand because the naked eye and human hand were still the
most precise instrument when judging the fluidity of lines," Tomazic says.
the hands-on method was deemed more precise, it was also quite limiting in
terms of how the Pipistrel engineering team could evolve designs.
Traditionally, the engineer or aerodynamic specialist would manually describe
to the CNC milling machine operators creating the physical prototypes what kind
of curve or shape they needed. Not only was the engineering team limited by the
creativity and technical skills of the person responsible for building the
physical shape, there was too much room for misinterpretation around the
design, often leading to miscues and false starts. "The engineer or aerodynamic
specialist had to describe what they wanted to the person who was going to
produce it and there were often differences between the description and the
executed form," Tomazic says. "We couldn't make the shapes as complex as we
would have wanted to simply because the workers didn't understand what we
wanted. It was touch and go every time."
Soon afterward, the Pipistrel team began experimenting
with another 3-D MCAD tool, this one with an integrated module specifically for
composite design - Dassault SystÃ¨mes' CATIA PLM Express with the Composites
Design option. Using this tool, the Pipistrel engineering team was able to
transition its manual shaping and physical prototyping process for an aircraft into
a digital prototyping method that ensured consistency
while allowing the team to more fully explore a range of design options.
While composite materials deliver superior aerodynamic
qualities, they introduce complexities into the design, particularly around
blending surfaces between two adjacent parts and in accurately determining the
thickness of component parts. Prior to using CATIA and the integrated
Composites Design tool, the Pipistrel team struggled with blending a surface
such as a sharp wing structure with a round surface like that associated with a
fuselage. Traditionally, in an example like that, the team would produce the
wings and fuselage separately and then join them together by hand. Because the
process was so complex and nearly impossible to replicate in a drawing,
designers were stuck with more of a trial-and-error process, which was time
consuming and often didn't produce the desired results. "The fact that we can
define the outside aerodynamic shape on the computer versus describing what we
want technically to build a part has tremendous benefits," Tomazic explains.
"There's no more problems with fitting - if parts fit on the computer, they fit
in real life."
the master shape defined in CATIA also aids in constructing the layers of
composite materials underneath. Take, for example, the cockpit of the aircraft.
The design challenge is to create a space that is large enough to comfortably
accommodate the people without jeopardizing the aircraft's aerodynamic shape -
a task that becomes more complex given the properties of designing with
composites. "With composite materials, it's often difficult to judge the
thickness because the thickness of the walls and structure varies," he says.
Since composite parts are made of plies, sometimes having too many bends or
corners makes it difficult to estimate a part's size. "CATIA integrates the
ability to see how thick a part or material will be regardless of whether it's
made of composites or something solid," Tomazic adds.
the two years since Pipistrel deployed the new approach, it has achieved a
number of significant milestones. Its Virus and follow on Virus SW (Short Wing)
cruise aircraft both won the NASA Challenge, winning accolades for their fuel
efficiency and performance. From a product development perspective, the changes
had a notable impact on improving Pipistrel's ability to get aircraft models to
market faster. Specifically, Tomazic said the manufacturer has cut the time it
takes to get a plane from concept to market by 40 percent - an achievement he
attributes to being able to explore more design iterations since both the
mechanical design and shape work are performed in the same package. In
addition, because the composite models created in CATIA are so precise, the
time required for testing of parts and components is also greatly reduced - in
some case as much as 25 percent. "Instead of people producing shapes, machines are
producing much more precise shapes and there are no more mistakes with
testing," he explains. Previously, every part was subjected to force and
measurement tests, but now simple parts can be tested in the computer
environment and the test results are accurate, Tomazic adds.
forward, Pipistrel is in the midst of transferring its existing materials
database from another software package into CATIA - a move Tomazic says will
streamline engineering change orders. In addition, it will create an integrated
environment whereby all relevant parties are notified of pertinent changes and
all corresponding documentation and files are updated from a single CATIA
While aircraft designs two years and older will
continue to be produced and evolved with the company's traditional product
development model, the Virus SW aircraft, a forthcoming four-seater unit, and
any new designs will take advantage of the new 3-D driven composite design
approach. Says Tomazic: "Any kind of clean book design we're setting up in the
new system right from the start. Now we're able to design everything on the
computer - not only the systems, but the shape and structure of the plane."
Researchers working with additive manufacturing have said multimaterial techniques will allow industry “to fabricate materials with combinations of density, strength, and thermal expansion that do not exist [yet].”
The term "multiphysics" is used to describe the simulation of multiple types of physics and their influence on one another -- for example, the investigation of the behavior of a chemical in liquid form will involve both chemistry and fluid dynamics.
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.