simplicity of a pressure exchanger's mechanical design is playing a key role in
the increased efficiency of seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems. The result
is very high transfer efficiencies between the concentrate and seawater feed
streams, and reduced energy usage at lower recovery rates.
"By using energy recovery technology,
applications can recover 55 to 60 percent of the energy required for the
reverse osmosis process," says Jeremy Martin, director of engineering for
Energy Recovery Inc. "The PX™ pressure exchanger device itself has
an efficiency of up to 98 percent and recovers virtually all of the pressure
energy in the reject flow stream of the RO process."
ERI's PX devices have only one moving part, a
high purity aluminum oxide rotor that turns at up to 1,200 rpm using an almost
frictionless hydrodynamic bearing. Inside the rotor are channels in which the
concentrate from the membranes and fresh salt water come into direct, momentary
contact. The momentum of the water turns the rotor at a speed that adjusts to
flow variations and nearly constant high efficiency over a wide operating
range. The unit's design, which uses ceramic material, makes it unaffected by
chemicals or aqueous corrosion, and three times harder than steel. It also provides
unmatched durability in the PX device application.
"The heart of our innovation is using the
engineering ceramic rotor and machining it to tight tolerances, so the spinning
rotor can be powered by the flow of water going into the device," Martin says. "By
maintaining very tight tolerances, there is very little leakage of water from
the high- and low-pressure sides, which creates a very effective high-pressure
The PX energy recovery device uses positive
displacement and isobaric chambers to achieve extremely efficient transfer of
energy from a high-pressure waste stream, such as the brine stream from a
reverse osmosis desalination unit, to a low-pressure incoming feed stream. The
key is that virtually no energy is lost in the transfer.
Energy Recovery is continuing to explore ways
to further increase efficiency and build larger-capacity units. The SWRO
industry operates at relatively high pressures (around 800 psi) but there is
also a larger market for brackish reverse osmosis systems that operate at lower
Another potential application is osmotic
power, an energy-generation process that uses the osmotic potential difference
between seawater and fresh water to generate electricity. The plant is driven
by osmosis that naturally draws fresh water across a membrane and toward the
seawater side. This creates higher pressure on the sea water side, driving a
turbine and producing electricity.
Statkraft, a large European producer of
renewable energy with experience in hydropower that provides nearly all of
Norway's electricity, aims to begin building commercial osmotic power plants by
2015. The main issue is to improve the efficiency of the membrane from around one
watt per square meter now to about five watts, which would make osmotic power
costs comparable to those from other renewable sources.
Samsung's Galaxy line of smartphones used to fare quite well in the repairability department, but last year's flagship S5 model took a tumble, scoring a meh-inducing 5/10. Will the newly redesigned S6 lead us back into star-studded territory, or will we sink further into the depths of a repairability black hole?
In 2003, the world contained just over 500 million Internet-connected devices. By 2010, this figure had risen to 12.5 billion connected objects, almost six devices per individual with access to the Internet. Now, as we move into 2015, the number of connected 'things' is expected to reach 25 billion, ultimately edging toward 50 billion by the end of the decade.
NASA engineer Brian Trease studied abroad in Japan as a high school student and used to fold fast-food wrappers into cranes using origami techniques he learned in library books. Inspired by this, he began to imagine that origami could be applied to building spacecraft components, particularly solar panels that could one day send solar power from space to be used on earth.
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.