Albemarle Corp, a leading flame retardant producer for
engineering plastics, has developed an environmentally friendly replacement for
ether, which has been banned for use in electrical and electronic
enclosures in Europe and in two states.
The development is significant because decabrom has long
been a workhorse flame retardant that allowed safe use of many important
plastics, particularly the styrenics. Despite protests from suppliers, the use
of decabrom has been curtailed because of various health and environmental
The new material, called Earthwise GreenArmor, is expected
to be commercially available in the second half of 2010.
"Based on the testing we've done it can be used in as many
applications as decarbrom has been," says Dave Clary, chief sustainability
officer for Albemarle.
He says the new material has properties that are at least equal to, and
sometimes better than decabrom. Two areas of improvement noted in the test are
improved surface appearance of parts made with the additive, and a higher melt
flow rate. The new materials are also melt blendable.
describes GreenArmor as "organic" because it is produced with a proprietary
polymeric backbone. Bromine is incorporated into the compound to provide flame
retardance. "There are some resins that cannot be flame retarded without a
halogen," says Clary. Bromine is a member of the halogen family. Some
difficult-to-flame-retard resins include ABS and high-impact polystyrene.
Polymeric compounds are considered safer under European
guidelines than mineral compounds. It's also significant that there is much
less bromine in GreenArmor than some plastic compounds, which can be loaded as
high as 50 percent with decabrom to achieve flame retardance.
"It's important that it's a polymeric material because that
means it's not absorbable into the body," says Clary.
GreenAmror is the first product in a broad-based program at Albemarle to develop
specialty chemical products that are environmentally friendly. A wide variety
of chemistries probably will be used, says Clary. Some of the criteria for the
program are said to include improved recyclability or reuse, use of non toxic,
non-bioaccumulative materials and a favorable greenhouse gas footprint.
Compounds containing GreenArmor can be easily recycled, says
Clary. That isn't necessarily the case with plastic compounds that are flame
retarded using other technologies. In some cases, the flame retardant could
sufficiently weaken mechanical proprieties of the plastics to prohibit re-use.
Pricing for the new material has not yet been established.
Clary says Albemarle
has tested GreenArmor in ABS, high-impact polystyrene, nylons, and other
"Bromine has gotten kind of a bad rap," says Clary. "There
is a wide variety of brominated flame retardants and brominated products in
general. And they all have different properties and they tend to get grouped
into one category because there have been a couple of products where there has
been concern or proof of harm. Most of them are no longer on the market. The
good side of bromine is that is very effective at flame retarding difficult
plastics, so it allows us to have safe products.
Are they robots or androids? We're not exactly sure. Each talking, gesturing Geminoid looks exactly like a real individual, starting with their creator, professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.