Researchers at Osaka Prefecture University in Japan have developed a new low-temperature process that allows even heat-sensitive materials to be coated with a transparent super water-repellent film. The Osaka Prefecture University group, led by Materials Scientist Tsutomu Minami, had previously developed a method of forming a transparent highly water-repellent film. That process deposits a thin film of alumina, mixed with an organic resin, on a substrate and then bakes the object at 400C. The heat burns off the organic molecules, producing a regular surface roughness with features on the scale of tens of nanometers—enough to get the desired shape effect yet with sufficient consistency to minimize loss of transparency due to light dispersion. The alumina is then coated with a film of hydrolyzed fluoroalkyltrimethoxysilane (FAS), a water-repellent. Unfortunately, the high temperatures required make this method only suitable for such temperature-resistant materials as glass and ceramics. The new method relies on a chemical reaction rather than high temperature. The object is first coated with an alumina gel film chemically modified with acetoacetic acid. When immersed in a water bath at 60C, the chemicals react, forming tiny crystals which are washed off to create the minutely rough surface. The surface is then coated with FAS as in the heat-treatment process. Since it is a low-temperature process, the researchers believe it could be used for ski goggles and motorcycle helmet visors, where highly water-repellent yet transparent coatings are needed for plastic substrates. For additional details, contact Tsutomu Minami, Dept. of Applied Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Japan. Tel: +81 722 54 9329; Fax: +81 722 54 9913; or e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Using wireless chips and accessories, engineers can now extract data from the unlikeliest of places -- pumps, motors, bridges, conveyors, refineries, cooling towers, parking garages, down-hole drills and just about anything else that can benefit from monitoring.
With strong marketplace demand for qualified engineers across the board that currently outstrips the available supply, there may never be a better time for engineers and project managers to advance their careers and salaries. Whether those moves are successful in the short-term and long-term is likely to depend on how the transition from one job to the next is handled.
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.