The National Institute of Standards and Technology has developed three ASTM International standard test methods for the thin films used to make micromachines (MEMs). Published in The Annual Book of ASTM International Standards, the test procedures—first such standards in the world—could faciliate global commerce in MEMs by enabling reliable measurements of MEMs devices. Detailed instructions are given for measuring thin-film dimensions and strain. For more info, go to www.eeel.nist.gov/812/test-structures.
Fifty-six-year-old Pasquale Russo has been doing metalwork for more than 30 years in a tiny southern Italy village. Many craftsmen like him brought with them fabrication skills when they came from the Old World to America.
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