While most engineers argue Ethernet TCP/IP is inappropriate for an I/O bus, Gerd Hoppe, President of Beckhoff North America, says his company is going in the opposite direction with its new product RTEthernet—introduced in Europe in November 2002 and just now available here in the U.S. Beckhoff 's software engineers, old hands at tinkering with the Windows operating system, have devised a way to communicate directly with a standard COTS Ethernet controller card using short, 7-microsecond telegrams. One of these tiny telegrams could contain the status of as many as 368 I/O points. Regular TCP messages are held temporarily in a buffer while the telegrams pass through the system. Aptly described as an "onion ring" design, it can encapsulate any fieldbus protocol inside its Ethernet telegrams, giving RTEthernet potential compatibility with dozens of different fieldbus systems.
Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications like aerospace and medical requires very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International.
Engineers at the University of San Diego’s Jacobs School of Engineering have designed biobatteries on commercial tattoo paper, with an anode and cathode screen-printed on and modified to harvest energy from lactate in a person’s sweat.
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