Like a bug that crashes into and sticks on your windshield, particles of metal stick to surfaces on aircraft engine components when propelled at speeds of 500 to 1,500 meters per second. Re-searchers at Sandia National Labs are studying what happens when metals, alloys, and ceramic blends measuring 10 to 15 microns smack into engine components in a process called cold spray. Unlike thermal sprays that re-quire preheating the particles into a semi-molten state, the new cold spray process works at room temperature. Cold-sprayed materials typically re-main at room temperature until slamming into a substrate, which the researchers believe helps the metal particles form tight bonds. The disadvantage with semi-molten materials is that when they cool, they create residual stresses that cause defects later. The researchers think the cool process is better because the high-velocity impacts disrupt the metal oxide films on the particles and substrate surfaces, pressing their atomic structures into one another. "Cold-sprayed coatings have a higher density and smoother finishes than traditional thermally sprayed coating's," says Sandia researcher Mark Smith. "The electric properties tend to be better too." Smith notes that the Sandia team is still characterizing the coatings other properties. Sandia is currently working with a consortium of eight U.S. companies in an effort to improve the technique. Additional applications for the process include depositing coatings and conductive metals onto automotive components, building components layer by layer, and joining chemically dissimilar materials together as an alternative to welding. For more information, go to www.sandia.gov.
Samsung's Galaxy line of smartphones used to fare quite well in the repairability department, but last year's flagship S5 model took a tumble, scoring a meh-inducing 5/10. Will the newly redesigned S6 lead us back into star-studded territory, or will we sink further into the depths of a repairability black hole?
In 2003, the world contained just over 500 million Internet-connected devices. By 2010, this figure had risen to 12.5 billion connected objects, almost six devices per individual with access to the Internet. Now, as we move into 2015, the number of connected 'things' is expected to reach 25 billion, ultimately edging toward 50 billion by the end of the decade.
NASA engineer Brian Trease studied abroad in Japan as a high school student and used to fold fast-food wrappers into cranes using origami techniques he learned in library books. Inspired by this, he began to imagine that origami could be applied to building spacecraft components, particularly solar panels that could one day send solar power from space to be used on earth.
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