Terry Blumenthal is not a medical device designer, but he has an important message for engineers who design defibrillators. The Wake Forest University psychologist is working with cardiologist Charles Swerdlow to find ways of reducing the painful electric shock administered by defibrillators when they activate. "We considered using weaker electric shocks, but that didn't work," says Swerdlow. "Then we tried changing the shape of the waveform, but that has not yet been successful," he explains. They eventually found that when a painless electric "pre-pulse" precedes a painful electric shock, the pre-pulse seems to reduce the body's startle response and minimize pain. "The pre-pulse interrupts everything, including the subsequent processing of pain," says Blumenthal. "It diminishes the neural circuits' ability to respond to subsequent painful stimulus," he says. Testing the hypothesis involved delivering 150V shocks to volunteers, who then rated the shock's painfulness with and without pre-pulses. Although volunteers received the same shock, the painfulness was rated lower with the pre-pulse. "There may be a variety of ways to integrate these finding into other applications using sound, sight, and other modalities," says Blumenthal. For more information, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Time was when sports equipment was made only from common, everyday, low-tech materials. But now sports equipment has a new, high-tech ingredient that is helping players take their game to the next level.
A humanoid diving robot has recovered treasure from the wreck of French King Louis XIV's flagship, untouched for nearly 400 years. The bot not only looks somewhat human-shaped, it's also got stereoscopic humanlike vision, artificial intelligence, and haptic force feedback.
Design collaboration now includes the entire value chain. From suppliers to customers, purchasing to outside experts, the collaborative design team includes internal and external groups. The design process now stretches across the globe in multiple software formats.
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.