These USAE washers are a hybrid of USS standard washer and SAE attributes. They have more contact area and greater holding power with a USS-standard outside diameter, offering washers up to 36 percent larger than regular hardened washers. The inside diameter fits SAE standards, making a smaller ID for a more precise fit on bolts and studs. All American made, the USAE washers are made out of mild steel, case-hardened to 60 HRc and have a black oxide finish. They are 37 percent thicker than standard washers. They come in a range accommodating bolts from / to 1 inch, with the bolt size stamped on each washer. Tolerances on all USAE washers are ±.010 inch.
According to a study by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, one of the factors in the collapse of the original World Trade Center towers on Sept. 11, 2001, was the reduction in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement as a result of the high temperatures of the fire and the loss of thermal insulation.
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Robots are getting more agile and automation systems are becoming more complex. Yet the most impressive development in robotics and automation is increased intelligence. Machines in automation are increasingly able to analyze huge amounts of data. They are often able to see, speak, even imitate patterns of human thinking. Researchers at European Automation
call this deep learning.
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