These USAE washers are a hybrid of USS standard washer and SAE attributes. They have more contact area and greater holding power with a USS-standard outside diameter, offering washers up to 36 percent larger than regular hardened washers. The inside diameter fits SAE standards, making a smaller ID for a more precise fit on bolts and studs. All American made, the USAE washers are made out of mild steel, case-hardened to 60 HRc and have a black oxide finish. They are 37 percent thicker than standard washers. They come in a range accommodating bolts from / to 1 inch, with the bolt size stamped on each washer. Tolerances on all USAE washers are ±.010 inch.
Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications like aerospace and medical requires very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International.
Engineers at the University of San Diego’s Jacobs School of Engineering have designed biobatteries on commercial tattoo paper, with an anode and cathode screen-printed on and modified to harvest energy from lactate in a person’s sweat.
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