Ford's top-selling F-150 pickup has sported an aluminum hood—the most popular automotive body panel application for the material—for ten years. Now, the steel industry wants to take it back. "With advances in medium- and high-strength steels, we can now offer at least the same level of hood performance and take customers closer to their ultimate mass-reduction goal for a significantly lower cost," says Ron Krupitzer, Senior Director of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). "If you factor in manufacturing costs, an aluminum hood could easily cost three to five times as much as a steel hood." At the most basic level, the two primary functions of a hood are to keep the rain off the engine and look good, which has made this large body panel an easy target for automakers looking to get into a lower inertial weight class in order to meet overall Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFÉ) requirements. In fact, automakers frequently switch back and forth between aluminum and steel hoods, depending on whether the goal of the month is to reduce weight or cost. But the technical requirements for the hood are not zero, says Kruptizer, and in fact he says that hood performance is perceived now to be more critical as safety becomes an overpowering design requirement for automakers—something he says could tip the scales in favor of steel. He points to new pedestrian injury requirements being driven by the Europeans, as well as new crash rollover and side impact tests, which are impacting the whole architecture of the front of the car and likely to affect hood design. To help educate auto engineers on the benefits of medium- and high-strength steels in hood applications and to better understand the design criteria—with the ultimate goal presumably to achieve more design wins—the AISI commissioned a major benchmarking study comparing mass, structural performance, surface characteristics, and dent resistance capabilities, of aluminum and steel hood designs. The results of that study will be presented at the SAE World Congress in Detroit in March. The AISI also plans to release application guidelines for advanced high-strength steels to the auto industry in 2004.
What makes this movie stand out from the typical high school sports story is that the teenagers are undocumented immigrants, and the big game is a NASA-sponsored marine robotics competition. Like many other Hollywood movies, however, Spare Parts only tells part of the story. What the film shows -- and doesn’t show -- raises important issues affecting STEM education in the US.
Instead of sifting through huge amounts of technical data looking for answers to assembly problems, engineers can now benefit from 3M's new initiative -- 3M Assembly Solutions. The company has organized its wealth of adhesive and tape solutions into six typical application areas, making it easier to find the best products to solve their real-world assembly and bonding problems.
Load dump occurs when a discharged battery is disconnected while the alternator is generating current and other loads remain on the alternator circuit. If left alone, the electrical spikes and transients will be transmitted along the power line, leading to malfunctions in individual electronics/sensors or permanent damage to the vehicle’s electronic system. Bottom line: An uncontrolled load dump threatens the overall safety and reliability of the vehicle.
Focus on Fundamentals consists of 45-minute on-line classes that cover a host of technologies. You learn without leaving the comfort of your desk. All classes are taught by subject-matter experts and all are archived. So if you can't attend live, attend at your convenience.