Developers at Laser Zentrum Hanover (LZH, Germany) are using their two-photon polymerization system to create 100-200 nm structures. The idea is similar to rapid prototyping, but in 3D rather than building with 2D layers. Twin laser beams, generating femtosecond laser pulses focused at the same point in a liquid resin, sweeping through three dimensions, form the nanostructures or microstructures. Two-photon polymerization solidifies the resin at the localized focus area.
Practically all electronic devices today contain metals that may
be coming from conflict-ravaged African countries. And political pressures will increasingly influence how these minerals are sourced and used in products.
Weaned on the relatively effortless connectivity of today’s massive variety of consumer electronic products, automation users in the IIoT will likely not tolerate too many competing, piecemeal standards for long. And the Industrial Internet Consortium is trying to preempt history.
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