Aurora Flight Sciences Corp. has applied knowledge gained in developing full-authority digital engine controls (FADEC) for the company's Perseus unmanned aerial vehicle to create what is said to be the first all-digital single-lever power control (SLPC) for general aviation. Unlike the single gas pedal in a car, current piston engine aircraft have three controls to govern air speed: one for the throttle, one for the fuel-to air mixture, and one for propeller pitch control. An SLPC integrates a FADEC with a single power lever interface, greatly simplifying the pilot's job while simultaneously improving engine efficiency, decreasing emissions, and even extending engine life. "The SLPC increases safety and decreases pilot workload," says Benjamin Russ, SLPC project manager. "In a single-engine aircraft, our test pilot estimates that it cuts his workload by about 50%." The single-lever power command input is interpreted into optimal engine speed and inlet manifold pressure commands for the given flight condition. These commands are met by the real-time control laws running on the FADEC. As with the electronic engine-management system found on most new automobiles, the FADEC processes numerous engine parameters such as manifold air pressure, engine speed, cylinder head temperature, oil temperature, exhaust gas temperature, flight speed, and altitude to determine the best engine settings for a given power lever setting. "The pilot sets the power lever to a relative value--say half power--and the system determines the best way to develop half power given the current conditions," says Russ. Given today's sensor and processing technology--and Aurora's system leverages many automotive components--the SLPC seems like a straightforward product. However, safety is a paramount concern, and engineers have initially had to find ways to integrate the SLPC into the Cessna O-2A test aircraft without disabling the conventional mechanical fuel injection and magneto spark system. The result is player-piano like, with the manual engine-control levers moving in harmony to the SLPC's commands. OEM installations would probably be more elegant but still retain a mechanical backup for limping home.
Engineers at Fuel Cell Energy have found a way to take advantage of a side reaction, unique to their carbonate fuel cell that has nothing to do with energy production, as a potential, cost-effective solution to capturing carbon from fossil fuel power plants.
To get to a trillion sensors in the IoT that we all look forward to, there are many challenges to commercialization that still remain, including interoperability, the lack of standards, and the issue of security, to name a few.
This is part one of an article discussing the University of Washington’s nationally ranked FSAE electric car (eCar) and combustible car (cCar). Stay tuned for part two, tomorrow, which will discuss the four unique PCBs used in both the eCar and cCars.
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