Using Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) with AHSS does present some technical hurdles. AHSS are sensitive to heat inputs of GMAW and can potentially suffer from microstructure changes and reductions in mechanical properties. It's a problem made all the worse in the down-gauged sheet made possible by AHSS strength. In his GDIS presentation, Ford's Elliott outlined some of the company's ongoing work to optimize GMAW process variables and weld-line geometry. For example, he identified a number of variables that can increase fatigue life of a lap-welding joint between a 3.4 mm AHSS (DP 600) and a 3.8 mm mild steel. Among the variables are decreasing wire feed speed and travel speed while increasing torch angle, push angle and the contact-to-work-distance.
Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications like aerospace and medical requires very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International.
Engineers at the University of San Diego’s Jacobs School of Engineering have designed biobatteries on commercial tattoo paper, with an anode and cathode screen-printed on and modified to harvest energy from lactate in a person’s sweat.
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