Pennsylvania State University engineers have developed a new way to simulate sonic-boom penetration into the ocean, then estimate how loud a noise the boom makes underwater, where it could annoy whales, fish, and other marine life. Called the finite difference method, the technique can compute the penetrating sonic boom noise for simple or complex ocean surfaces, corresponding to calm and rough seas. Using the technique, the researchers found that a somewhat complex wavy ocean surface only slightly augments the underwater noise from a sonic boom.
Researchers have been working on a number of alternative chemistries to lithium-ion for next-gen batteries, silicon-air among them. However, while the technology has been viewed as promising and cost-effective, to date researchers haven’t managed to develop a battery of this chemistry with a viable running time -- until now.
Norway-based additive manufacturing company Norsk Titanium is building what it says is the first industrial-scale 3D printing plant in the world for making aerospace-grade metal components. The New York state plant will produce 400 metric tons each year of aerospace-grade, structural titanium parts.
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