Yes, Paul, and I requested this correction a few weeks ago when another reader noted the incorrect units. Sometimes symbols don't translate well from a Word document to the HTML. I'll ask again--thanks for your reminder.
Hi, Christopher. You make a good point about sensor ranges, so I'll put it on my topic list for a column after I wrap up this series on data-acquisition. You remind me that it's always good to start on a high range with an instrument and then change to a lower scale as appropriate. I once saw a bent needle on a Simpson VOM someone used to measure line power with a low-voltage setting. It almost made me cry.
Glad to see you presenting this. I've often had to point this out to my junior engineers; now I can point them to this article.
On a parallel subject. Are you going to discuss selecting sensor ranges relative to the measured value in question? I've also encounter situations where the engineer selected something like a 0-100 psi pressure transducer to measure a varying pressure with a mean around 80 psi and then just assumed the occasional 100 psi spikes where as high as the signal got.... I was trained to select a sensor which put the nominal reading at ~50% of the sensor range if I was fairly sure of what I was measuring, and to use less of the range if there was more uncertainty in the measured quantity.
Switched-capacitor filters have a few disadvantages. They exhibit greater sensitivity to noise than their op-amp-based filter siblings, and they have low-amplitude clock-signal artifacts -- clock feedthrough -- on their outputs.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.