While self-driving cars grab headlines, semi-autonomous features are quietly working their way into production vehicles and boosting safety today.
The most common of those features fall into three overlapping categories: adaptive cruise control, lane departure warnings, and collision avoidance systems. All three use sensors to watch the road ahead. Increasingly, however, the sensors are being augmented by systems that grab control of the steering or brakes, enabling the vehicle to actively prevent an imminent collision. Beyond that, automakers are also developing systems that will enable cars to communicate with each other and prevent potential accidents.
We've collected photos and graphics of various semi-autonomous systems that vigilantly stand watch and protect vehicle occupants. Following are a few already employed in vehicles, along with others that are coming soon.
Click on the photo below to start the slideshow.
A lanekeeping system from Ford Motor Co. can recognize drowsy drivers and help them stay alert and in their lanes. When the lanekeeping system detects the vehicle drifting close to lane markings, it notifies the driver through a vibration to the steering wheel or by providing steering torque to move the car back toward the center of the lane. (Source: Ford Motor Co.)
Great slideshow, Chuck. I had no idea about some of these new features because, as you mentioned, it's the self-driving cars that are getting all the attention. But I have far more interest in things that you show here--like alerts for drifting into another lane and the cameras to help drivers pay better attention to obstacles and the road ahead--which I think are a much better investment at this time. I also really like all the collision-avoiding features, as I am one of those people who tends to bump into standing obstacles and cause minor dings in my car (which is actually a mini-bus). It's too late for my vehicle but good to know these helpful features are on the horizon!
Chuck, this is an iteresting review of some of the technologies out there. It is interesting to see some of what I would consider to be exotic sensors used. I know that millimeter-wave radar has become less expensive with new computing technology, but I have to wonder if more vision based systems would not be just as good.
Image 4 of the presentation shows a driver sitting behind the wheel of a presumably moving vehicle, arms crossed, in a watchful manner.
This looks very much like the position I've seen commercial air transport pilots take when in the long cruise portion of a flight. Autopilot is on; the pilot need only monitor instruments and watch ahead.
I hope Cadillac's technology is as robust as the image would have us think. It would be nice to keep one's arms more relaxed for long hauls. I hope even more that this will extend into stop-and-go commuter traffic.
You wouldn''t guess from all this technology, but some of us actually enjoy driving and don't want a robot to the job for us. Some of us (OK, at least one of us...) design robots for a living, are personally aquainted with the operation/quality/purchasing VPs' and wouldn't trust our lives with the product.
The liability aspects of technical faults could keep a few law firms in steak and gravy for years.
What happens when a potential accident situation arises and the various sensors disagree on the action? Majority vote? Sensor priority? (The others might drop off the bus in protest). General confusion? (most likely). Back to the lawyers (one for each sub-contractor) and the liability issues again.
Battar has it right. The picture of the man with his arms crossed paying close attention is not how it will play out (even with responsible drivers). Everyone (at some point) will relinquish driving responsibility to the car (even with just the adaptive cruise control), and then text/read the paper, eat breakfast, or even sleep. When these drivers kill other people, there will be an argument between the vehicle manufacturer and the driver over liability (and, as we've seen with Toyota and their unintended acceleration debacle, the manufacturer will continue to get a free pass from the government).
This doesn't even include the problems with safety critical hardware and software (which these systems are) not having ANY government mandated performance standards, coding requirements, reliability standards, or sensor/computing redundancy requirements. Any system good enough to field will NOT be affordable (at least anytime soon).
Also, I noticed in two of the pictures that LED's obstructed or obfuscated or even distracted the drivers view to warn them of impending danger. When a few ms count, perhaps sound and haptic feedback would be better suited to helping drivers react well (especially at night).
This is certainly in our future, but perhaps not just yet.
In so far as putting you life in the hand of robots (or at least robotic systems, the root of operation) we do that all the time. The last time you flew was likely in an airplane that is equiped with a fly by wire system. And as for the decision part of the robot, I would tend to trust the decisions of the robots more than many of the so-called drivers I encounter on the road, at least I can trust the robot will do a better job of keeping an eye on its surroundings and not creating a hazardous situation. The robot won't get drunk, distracted by texting and phone calls, fall asleep at the wheel or deem itself "owner of the road".
As for the desire to drive and the freedom to drive, I read an article recently that I think had that right too, once autonomous driving takes over and its reliability is proven, you will likely find that the insurance premimums for a non-autonomouns (you drive it) vehicle will become prohibitively high.
What we are seeing today is the proving ground for the eventual takeover of the road by robotic systems and I beleive that such a takeover will ultimately lead to a near zero collision and fatality transportation system (there will inevitiably be situations that even you or I could not possibly avoid). Each of these systems is getting the opportunity to grow and learn, be improved and perfected, and hopefully always in a positive direction (saving life and limb rather than costing it); however, growing and learning are never without peril. I won't claim that the designers can foresee everything that will ever happen, I believe it was airbus that had a plane go down on its demonstration flight several years back, due to a conflict between what the pilot wanted to do and the fly-by-wire safety systems deemed appropriate. It was a costly learning curve both in life and equipment. Hopefully the designers of these systems are taking events like that into consideration.
3dRob has quite a few valid points, no doubt. My concern is what happens when an exception arises, which happens to many of us a few times a year. Just think about what would happen when the lane-holding system would see the instance of a damaged center line wandering off to the shoulder. I have seen that twice, it was probably caused by some vehicle moving quickly to the sholder to avoid hitting the line of cars behind the lane painting truck. Rare indeed, but it happens and I have seen the results.
And what would the system do about a large cement bag that suddenly becomes airborn in front of the vehicle when it is lifted up by the wind from a truck in the next lane. Hitting it puts a small skuff in the paint on the leading edge of the hood, but at 55MPH there is no maneuver to escape it when it happens only 50 feet ahead. Anything that the system could do would make things worse, if it was done in heavy traffic, which is when it happened to me, once in 2 years, and once about six years back. And I am sure that quite a few of us have had the wind blow an empty trash can into the road just ahead.
Besides those concerns we need to remember that every included response will be vetted by lawyers to assure that the provider could not be held liable in the event of a lawsuit. That in turn means that all of the logic would make such a vehicle a real impediment to the normal flow of traffic. That fact is inescapable, and should not be ignored.
Yes, fly by wire systems are commonplace in planes today. Their cost is high since they must meet safety-critical requirements. When the plane costs tens if not 100's of millions, a few million for an adequate robotic control system is reasonable.
I would think a robotic control system's tasks are much simpler in a plane than it would be in an automobile (fewer things to hit, fewer things to do, more predictable surroundings, more predictable scenarios, and in a sense the time scale is longer). The pilot's are also trained and paid (and for the most part expected) to be at constant attention so if anything does go wrong, they can take over from the robot. Which is why, when that transfer doesn't go well (as in the Airbus flight from South America to France a few years back) so many people die (even with well trained personnel and expensive, fairly safe, systems).
But automobiles are commodity items. Every dollar counts, so cost cutting down to the bone WILL be done (and aggresively so). This means one of two outcomes. Either normal people will not be able to afford to drive these very expensive (but safe) cars (or as mattd pointed out, wont be able to afford the very expensive insurance on non-automated cars). Or, the government will figure the cost-benefit ratio of what's good enough and our cars will be automated but only mostly safe (30K deaths a year on the road is OK? But perhaps 50K is not? or perhaps 100k?) The latter is more in line with the fed's track record.
The question of whether engineers could have foreseen the shortcut maintenance procedures that led to the crash of American Airlines Flight 191 in 1979 will probably linger for as long as there is an engineering profession.
More than 35 years later, the post-mortem on one of the country’s worst engineering disasters appears to be simple. A contractor asked for a change in an original design. The change was approved by engineers, later resulting in a mammoth structural collapse that killed 114 people and injured 216 more.
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