Well, this is great work. It is an interesting use of CAE to understand what is really happening in a sport. A lot of this type of study is done in swimming.
The only reservation I have is that it makes the whole thing more complicated. It will increase the cost of fielding a team since they will now have to purchase the CAE software and all the equipment for measuring athletes.
That is if the racing teams actually make an investment in this kind of research, but you're right. It does inject a level of complexity and cost into the equation. Then again, competitive sports teams make this kind of investment all the time. Professional football teams do all kinds of analysis and simulation, golf professionals do, and the list goes on.
Yes, it make it more complicated, but this type of complication is usually welcomed in competitive sports. Part of the competition is off-road, where teams study everything little item that can afford an advantage.
Thanks for the question. We never counted the hours, but we have been working on the aerodynamics of single (isolated) cyclists since 2006. This studied was funded by the Flemish Cycling Union. It was a full-time job performed by postdoctoral fellow Erwin Koninckx for one year and a half. Also Thijs Defraeye (PhD student at the time) worked for almost 50% of the time during more than two years on this project. Both were supervised by Peter Hespel, Jan Carmeliet and me. Erwin was later hired by the Flemish Cycling Union and is working there now. Erwin was/is the perfect man for the job: he has a double master degree, one in engineering and one in biomedical kinesiology, as well as a PhD in biomedical kinesiology.
The second study, i.e. on the groups of cyclists, was started in 2009. I started this study as a personal initiative because I wanted to investigate what would happen with groups of cyclists. There was no funding for this initiative, but luckily I could count also on the enthusiasm and support from the previous collaborators: Erwin, Thijs, Peter Hespel and Jan Carmeliet. Also the wind tunnel team at Dutch-German Wind Tunnels was enthusiastic and gave us some free testing time. This study - with some interruptions due to other tasks - is still going further today. I think I have spent, overall, more than 6 months full time on this second study. But much of this was spread over the past three years, including many weekends and evenings. Although our computing cluster has been calculating almost continuously in the past 10 months, and is still doing so today.
Thanks for the update on the project and for sharing your work with us. Very, very interesting and sounds like there's more to be done. Can you give us an idea of what kind of computing cluster is churning through all these calculations over the last six months?
Hi Beth, the computations are performed by parallel processing on twelve HP DL360R07 Xeon X5650 2.66 GHz processors with 96 Gb RAM, although the full range of RAM memory has not been needed yet for this study - this will only be needed when we extend the group of cyclists to about 15-20.
Practicality from engineer and cyclist... Cycling teams have invested in drag reduction studies, foil shaped tubing, internal cabling, optimized rider positions, rider skin suits, aero helmets (even with golf ball dimples), for quite some time now. Any single cyclist drag reduction is a benefit to all in the group. NASCAR is one of the more prominent displays of aero effects (bricks at very high speed) and it is well known that a lead car needs a second car to hook up behind him to let them both go faster. It still applies at slower speeds but to much less effect. When you're drafting on a bike you can definitely feel that 30% benefit, and being the fourth rider is noticeably easier than even being the second rider. In the real world you're also subject to different wind directions, hence cyclists angled into an echelon (migrating ducks). For a cycling team of nine or less they're best off single file, but with a larger peloton group there's even more benefit as the group widens out. The danger in all this is if cyclists get too close and touch wheels – the guy with his front wheel touched usually goes down – hence the carnage we're seeing in this year's Tour de France.
This is all correct, except for the comparison with the ducks. Birds fly in V-shape, and not straight behind each other, even if there is no wind, because they want to benefit from the tip vortex shed from the wing of the one in front of them. It's a different mechanism than the overpressure-underpressure effect with drafting cyclists (or cars). But indeed for cyclists, the effect is surely larger for the fourth rider than for the second one, as indeed the wake widens.
Hi Rob. The lead bird is indeed the one doing most of the hard work. All others behind him take advantage of the wingtip vortex. This wingtip vortex is very effective, and every duck except the first makes sure to fly in the upwash flow that is caused by this wingtip vortex of the duck in front of it. It is (much) more effective than the effect of just flying straight behind each other. The V-shape can reduce drag by up to 60 to 70%, which is much more than the 30% drag reduction effect that cyclists have on each other. For a more streamlined creature such as a bird, just flying behind each other will lead to even less than 30% reduction in drag. That's why birds of the same species will almost never fly straight behind each other. The V-shape and the very large drag reduction is crucial for birds to be able to perform their very long migration routes. They also alternate in cycles. Interestingly, they are even known to help weaker members of their group by not forcing them to take the lead. However, the lead bird would indeed have more advantage if the second bird would fly straight behind him/her - because of the same overpressure-underpressure effect as with cyclists. But overall, the group would not benefit from this. Mathematical models have been developed to assess the optimum flight configurations for birds, which are surprisingly similar to their actual flight behavior. A similar and very nice exercise for cycling races was done by Tim Olds, in 1982, who has actually provided mathematical models for cyclists to be successful (or not) in a break-away. The reference is:
Olds, T., 1998. The mathematics of breaking away and chasing in cycling. Eur. J. Appl. Physiology 77: 492-497.
Thanks again, Bert, for jumping in and explaining a lot of the physics. I've always marveled and wondered about the flying patterns of birds and it's interesting to make the connection between those principles and the ones you are exploring with cycling drag. Keep up the good work!
I was involved in the controls for a new soft drink bottling line last year. It was fascinating to watch 2-liter bottles move from the blow-molder to the filling machine on air-veyors. The bottle is supported by its neck, and the air-veyor blows air downstream, providing an almost frictionless conveying means. The bottles move very fast.
While the transport alone was neat to watch, the fascinating part was what happened to the bottles. Trailing bottles would catch up to the one in front of it, until about 6-8 bottles were moving along in a single slug. Physics and geometry created that optimum slug. No other bottles could catch up to it, so another slug would form behind it.
I would imagine there is an optimum cycle train as well, for a given average cyclist mass, speed, and cross-sectional area, not just the benefits of a pair of riders. That would seem to be the next path to explore.
This slug thing is most interesting. So a bottle can't catch up to the slug. There must be some air bouncing backwark as the weight of the slug increases preventing a trailing bottle from catching up. I'd like to hear more explanations and how it might relate to cycling.
Thank you for the comments and thanks Beth for the very nice article about our work. Here, I would like to acknowledge the other members of the team:
- Dr. Thijs Defraeye, Leuven University, Belgium - Dr. Erwin Koninckx, Flemish Cycling Union, Belgium - Prof.dr. Peter Hespel, Bakala Academy - Athletic Performance Center, Leuven University, Belgium - Prof.dr. Jan Carmeliet, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
Back in 1970 and 1971 we did some experiments with drafting and also with touching bike wheels as a result of being close. It is possible to survive a wheel "touch" even with a few inches of deflection, but probably not from the minimum drag stance that these guys ride in. Of course it is also mandatory that both riders be concentrating on riding and holding the bike in an upright position, two things that are probably quite foriegn to that racing crowd.
I am an absolute fan of CFD whenever that technology can be applied. There seem to be countless areas where answers to perplexing problems can be solved by its proper application. I had absolutely no idea for the reasons behind the "V" formation. I find this to be fascinating and Bert, I really appreciate you indicating the reason(s). This article is one more reason every practicing engineer needs to read Design News on a daily basis. Great work Ann.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.