The proposal also provides incentives for biofuels with no or low emissions from ILUC. The EC especially wants to encourage second- and third-generation biofuels that are produced from feedstock, such as algae, straw, and various types of waste. These don't create additional demands for land and will contribute proportionately more toward the target of 10 percent renewable energy in transport fuels.
One major study indicating problems with the environmental friendliness of biofuels was conducted recently by Empa, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology's materials science and technology laboratory. It concluded that only a few are more sustainable than petroleum-based fuels.
In many cases, although agriculture-based feedstocks cause fewer greenhouse gas emissions, they lead to other problems, such as increasing soil acid or pollution from fertilizer. Although biofuels from ethanol tend to have a better ecobalance than oil-based fuels like palm or soybean oil, results in each case depend on manufacturing method and fuel technology.
The study points out that environment assessment methods have been refined and better developed during the same time period that second-generation biofuels have been created, along with more innovative production methods.
With that cumulative perspective, it shouldn't be a surprise that first-generation food crop-based biofuels aren't such a great idea, because they not only affect food and feed crops, but may also be harmful in other ways. Other plant-based biofuel feedstocks, such as algae, may prove to be a lot less impactful on the environment.
Dave, thanks for the explanation, it makes a lot of sense. Sounds like there are multiple ways metal can be non-recovered. That 10% figure is higher than I would have guessed. I'll be very interested to see the results of the interview, assuming you can get it.
The 100% solar-powered airplane Solar Impulse 2 is prepping for its upcoming flight, becoming the first plane to fly around the world without using fuel. It's able to do so because of above-average performance by all of the technologies that go into it, especially materials.
As the 3D printing and overall additive manufacturing ecosystem grows, standards and guidelines from standards bodies and government organizations are increasing. Multiple players with multiple needs are also driving the role of 3DP and AM as enabling technologies for distributed manufacturing.
A growing though not-so-obvious role for 3D printing, 4D printing, and overall additive manufacturing is their use in fabricating new materials and enabling new or improved manufacturing and assembly processes. Individual engineers, OEMs, university labs, and others are reinventing the technology to suit their own needs.
For vehicles to meet the 2025 Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, three things must happen: customers must look beyond the data sheet and engage materials supplier earlier, and new integrated multi-materials are needed to make step-change improvements.
3D printing, 4D printing, and various types of additive manufacturing (AM) will get even bigger in 2015. We're not talking about consumer use, which gets most of the attention, but processes and technologies that will affect how design engineers design products and how manufacturing engineers make them. For now, the biggest industries are still aerospace and medical, while automotive and architecture continue to grow.
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