The proposal also provides incentives for biofuels with no or low emissions from ILUC. The EC especially wants to encourage second- and third-generation biofuels that are produced from feedstock, such as algae, straw, and various types of waste. These don't create additional demands for land and will contribute proportionately more toward the target of 10 percent renewable energy in transport fuels.
One major study indicating problems with the environmental friendliness of biofuels was conducted recently by Empa, the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology's materials science and technology laboratory. It concluded that only a few are more sustainable than petroleum-based fuels.
In many cases, although agriculture-based feedstocks cause fewer greenhouse gas emissions, they lead to other problems, such as increasing soil acid or pollution from fertilizer. Although biofuels from ethanol tend to have a better ecobalance than oil-based fuels like palm or soybean oil, results in each case depend on manufacturing method and fuel technology.
The study points out that environment assessment methods have been refined and better developed during the same time period that second-generation biofuels have been created, along with more innovative production methods.
With that cumulative perspective, it shouldn't be a surprise that first-generation food crop-based biofuels aren't such a great idea, because they not only affect food and feed crops, but may also be harmful in other ways. Other plant-based biofuel feedstocks, such as algae, may prove to be a lot less impactful on the environment.
Dave, thanks for the explanation, it makes a lot of sense. Sounds like there are multiple ways metal can be non-recovered. That 10% figure is higher than I would have guessed. I'll be very interested to see the results of the interview, assuming you can get it.
The company that brought you 3D-printed eyeglasses has launched both an improved clear polymer material for 3D printing optical components and a high-speed, precision, 3D-printing process for making small- and medium-sized batches in a few days.
We've found an amazing variety of robot hands & arms in medicine, space, and service robots, as well as R&D and assembly. Some are based on industrial designs modified for speed or dexterity, while others more closely emulate human movements, as well as human size and shape.
To give engineers a better idea of the range of resins and polymers available as alternatives to other materials, this Technology Roundup presents several articles on engineering plastics that can do the job.
The first photos made with a 3D-printed telescope are here and they're not as fuzzy as you might expect. A team from the University of Sheffield beat NASA to the goal. The photos of the Moon were made with a reflecting telescope that cost the research team £100 to make (about $161 US).
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