The materials used for lightweighting in transportation present different challenges, so selection requires careful choices, Ross Kozarsky, a LUX Research analyst and the report's lead author, told us. LUX Research conducted multiple decision-tree analyses to determine which materials are best used where, both now and 10 years from now. The decision-tree approach was designed to help automotive and aerospace companies, as well as suppliers and material developers. Kozarsky said:
Each material has its own portfolio of features, such as cost, environmental resistance, compatibility, tensile strength, thickness, corrosion, ability to absorb vibrations, and moldability. To best analyze an aircraft or an automobile, it needs to be broken down on the component level: what's the ideal material for each component?
Regardless of how much carbon fiber composites have entered into car designs such as Audi's, the biggest transportation lightweighting role in the near term will be played by high-performance metals like aluminum and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS), according to a new report from LUX Research. (Source: Audi)
AHSS and aluminum are on a similar part of the spectrum, said Kozarsky. "They are both the cheapest and offer the most incremental, rather than disruptive, performance changes. But for some applications, steel is better, and for others, aluminum is better." AHSS still offers high-volume automakers the lowest price and wide availability, so it continues to be the near-term leader. However, its limited ductility and welding can pose problems.
Because of the scale of its global giant producers, aluminum is second only to steel in cost and availability. On the report's structural materials spectrum its alloys occupy the middle ground. In many cases it's the best material for the short term, since it doesn't disrupt manufacturing patterns.
Actually, fabrication difficulty is mentioned several times in the article, both directly and indirectly, as moldability, disruptive technology vs non-disruptive technology, as "3D components involve a more complicated, expensive molding technology" and "CFRPs are not only more expensive, but using them is also a step change difference, which is much greater than transitioning from using one metal to another metal." Regarding recyclability, it's interesting to note that Boeing has invested in composite recycling: http://www.designnews.com/document.asp?doc_id=235280
Ann: We have exhibited in the past few months at the following conferences and trade shows: ACMA 2012; SAMPE 2012; American Coatings Show 2012; ACS Rubber Division Energy Rubber Group Winter Conference; SPI NPE 2012; and SPE International Polyolefins 2012. So, it's just not fiberglass reinforced polyester. I am talking about all manner of inorganic and organic reinforcements used in thermosets and thermoplastics We manufacture since 1973 organometallic coupling agents based on titanium, zirconim, and aluminum chemistry - rather than silane chemistry. I have 29-U.S. Patents and 1 pending on their composition of matter and their application, and 375-ACS CAS abstracted works on the subject of the interface and their application in polymer compositions.
A class of neoalkoxy and coordinate titanates and zirconates can coordinate couple to any surface via its protons ever present on the inorganic/organic reinforcement - from carbon and aramid fiber to CaCO3 to PTFE - thus forming an impervious 1.5-nanometer chemical bridge between say the carbon fiber and epoxy. The fiber does not have to be pretreated, but can be coupled in-situ becase water of condensation is not needed as with silanes, which react with surface hydroxyls to form a silanol oligomer, which in turn condenses with the surface hydroxyl group to condense 3-moles of water, which must be removed.
The titanate or zirconate uses the resin phase to bring it to the interface and deposit 1.5-nanometer atomic monolayers thus bonding the resin to the reinforcement surface that subsequently resists aged deterioration under high pressure, high temperature, and severe environmental conditions such as 240-hr. water boil in 10% salt water. This mechanism works on all manner of carbonaceous substrates: carbon fiber; carbon black; carbon nano tubes; graphene; etc.
For example, carbon fiber reinforced methyl nadic anhydride cured epoxy composites produced by General Dynamics without zirconate will have a long-fiber tensile strength of 62 Joules, which will deteriorate to 21 Joules 240-hr. water boil in 10% salt water, while 4-parts per thousand of a zirconate [Ken-React(r) NZ(r) 97] added to the epoxy will yield 119 Joules Tensile initial and 113 Joules when similarly water boiled aged.
@sjmonte: A joule is a unit of energy, not tensile strength. Tensile strengths are customarily given in units of pascals; one joule per cubic meter is equal to one pascal. However, since one pascal is very small, it's common to use the megapascal, i.e. million pascals, as the base unit.
Could you please give us the tensile strength in either megapascals or pounds per square inch?
In any case, the strength increases you report (more than 2x dry and more than 5x wet) are very impressive. If you have been producing these coupling agents since the 1970s, why haven't they been more widely adopted? I'd expect the composites industry to be extremely enthusiastic about something like this.
Artificially created metamaterials are already appearing in niche applications like electronics, communications, and defense, says a new report from Lux Research. How quickly they become mainstream depends on cost-effective manufacturing methods, which will include additive manufacturing.
SpaceX has 3D printed and successfully hot-fired a SuperDraco engine chamber made of Inconel, a high-performance superalloy, using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The company's first 3D-printed rocket engine part, a main oxidizer valve body for the Falcon 9 rocket, launched in January and is now qualified on all Falcon 9 flights.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and MIT have 3D-printed a new class of metamaterials that are both exceptionally light and have exceptional strength and stiffness. The new metamaterials maintain a nearly constant stiffness per unit of mass density, over three orders of magnitude.
Smart composites that let the material's structural health be monitored automatically and continuously are getting closer to reality. R&D partners in an EU-sponsored project have demonstrated what they say is the first complete, miniaturized, fiber-optic sensor system entirely embedded inside a fiber-reinforced composite.
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