As we showed you in a recent slideshow, some NASA scientists envision astronauts making whatever they need out of local materials on Mars or the moon via 3D printing. While technology from organizations like Contour Crafting has made this theoretically possible, now, Washington State University (WSU) engineers have actually used moon rocks to print some simple-shaped objects -- on Earth.
Real moon rocks are too rare, so researchers are using an imitation moon rock called lunar regolith simulant. Regolith is a mixture of loose dust, rock, and soil that covers solid bedrock on earth, as well as other planets, the moon, and some asteroids. The simulant is formulated to approximate the real lunar regolith's chemical and mineral properties. There are several versions. The WSU team used about 10 lb of one version that contains silicon, aluminum, calcium, iron, and magnesium oxides.
Washington State University engineers have 3D-printed some simple-shaped objects using a simulant of lunar regolith, a mixture of loose dust, rock, and soil that covers solid bedrock. Shown here, Apollo 16 astronaut Charlie Duke drives a core sample tube into the lunar regolith. (Source: NASA)
A team that includes Amit Bandyopadhyay and Susmita Bose, professors at the university's School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, has demonstrated the printing of parts from the raw, artificial moon rock. NASA is working with several organizations, including Contour Crafting, to develop the technology for fabricating simple tools or replacement parts, but Bandyopadhyay's group is the first to demonstrate the ability.
Previously, Bandyopadhyay and Bose had used 3D printing to create bone-like materials for use in orthopedic implants. Their current work uses Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENS) technology, specifically, LENS-750 systems. These are based on laser sintering, the most common additive manufacturing method. The team published its results in an article in the Rapid Prototyping Journal.
According to the article abstract, the team produced dense parts with no macroscopic defects, which they characterized to evaluate how laser processing affected the lunar regolith simulant's microstructure, constituent phases, and chemistry. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
Although the laser processing did cause marginal changes in the material's composition, after some trial and error, the researchers managed to produce parts that did not crack when they solidified.
The team has sent its results to NASA. Other team members include Vamsi Krishna Balla, also with WSU's School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering; Luke B. Roberson, of NASA's Kennedy Space Center; Gregory W. O'Connor, of Amalgam Industries; and Steven Trigwell, of ASRC Aerospace Corp. The research was supported by a $750,000 W.M. Keck Foundation grant.
In the video below, Bandyopadhyay shows the regolith material and explains that the technology can also be used onsite to repair broken parts. The achievement, he says in the video, is a first-generation work that will probably not be ready for commercial use for another 50 years or so.
I suspect it may not take that long, considering how fast this technology area is advancing. NASA is already working on 3D printing rocket engine parts, and other researchers have figured out how to 3D print entire personal electronic devices. The two biggest challenges in printing objects from moon rocks seem to be figuring out the best combination of laser sintering processing and moon rock material, plus, making small printers that will work in a zero-gravity environment.
Lunar Regolith sounds a lotlike moon dust, which should be available in adequate quantities on the moon, it seems.
What are the mechanical properties of the parts fabricated thus far, and are they actually useable? I know that the first 3D printed parts were primarily useful for visualizing and not much else. But tha was in 1988.
Producing parts from the materials listed does not seem like they would be very tough, but rather very hard and quite brittle, unless some additional work was done on the mixture prior to laser sintering. I see a real challenge in providing a uniform particle size and uniform chemical composition.
Providing enough power to run the 3D printer is the other challenge that could be an obstacle to using the process onthe moon, although with an adequate solar array enough power should be available.
If more information is available a discussion of the properties of the material will be an interesting presentation indeed.
ChasChas, minerals are not to be dismissed--and they are also found on the moon. If a widescale disaster happened here on Earth, as in sci-fi novels and movies, and all cultures got sent back to the stone age, it would be really difficult to re-create current conditions primarily because we've used up most of the Earth's minerals that were available via mining, to forge metals. Those metals are what we used to build machines, including the ones that then built other materials. The history of industrial technology is an interesting and instructive study.
I'd like to point out that the materials upon which our technology is based aren't consumed and made to be unusable once they have been incorporated into our machines and infrastructure. That is to say, we have not "used up" the iron, aluminum and other raw materials and they will be more accessible to future post dark age humanity that they were to our ancestors. They will just be in other places and not in their native ores. They will be in land fills, salvage yards and in the infrastructure concentrated in urban areas. In fact, many of them will be in a form much more recognizable as useful to people in a dystopian future than they were the first time we dug them out of the ground. Granted, fossil fuels will be much harder to find but that should be the only resource disadvantage to future peoples trying to build a technological society from scratch.
This reminds me of the folks who think money spent on space exploration disappears into the vacuum of the void with the few insignificant pounds of materials that we actually send into space. That money feeds into the economy and allows many people to feed their families, pay their mortgages, etc. and is in no way a waste or lost forever.
emneumann, thanks for the comments, and glad you liked the article. Unfortunately, we *have* used up many, perhaps even most, sources of raw native ores. Scrap and reclaimed metals are by no means easily reusable at the same strengths as when originally forged. Aluminum makers claim theirs is, but as usual, that depends on several variables. The dystopic scenarios are not confined to science fiction.
Ann, did you get a sense of what types of components will have the first priority for fabrication on the moon? I would imagine that the limited material available will also limit the variety of parts that can be fabricated.
If you mine the regolith on the moon's surface, there are actually quite a bit of materials that can be processed. Different locations on the moon will result in different percentages in composition. My employer, Teledyne Brown Engineering (TBE), has worked with Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) on In Situ Fabrication and Repair (ISFR) where we looked at using lunar regolith as a feedstock for additive manufacturing as well as other complementary projects. We specifically looked at the EBM process. With the EBM using a vacuum in their build chamber, the lunar environment is an excellent one. We have looked at mining oxygen from the lunar surface and using the waste products from this process (metal oxides), converting it to powder, and using it as the feedstock. It is certainly possible. There is titanium and other metals available on the moon.
We have looked at mining this material, as well as combining all metal "waste", and also looking at the lunar regolith. We did this work 4-5 years ago using a couple different simulants. We made some brick samples using lunar simulant along with a binder. The funding stopped and we could not continue this work. The funds were re-directed to more short-term work such as building a new rocket to replace the shuttle fleet! Other areas of interest included non-destructive inspection of additive manufactured parts such as Microwave and millimeter wave nondestructive testing and evaluation methods. We looked at post-processing these AM parts to arrive at acceptable tolerances. We even looked at growing biological parts as well as producing electrical components such as PC Boards and discreet components.
I'm glad to see additional work being done in this area. We spent 4-5 years working on everything from a lunar base to documenting possible existing parts on the ISS that could be replicated using additive manufacturing in space. NASA is very interested in looking at in situ manufacturing and this work will help make it happen. We worked with the Contour Crafter in building habitats and building launch/landing sites.
This was some really fun work. Hopefully, we can get the project going again and help make some significant progress!
Greg, to answer your other question concerning what components will be fabricated first, you have to decide what spares make sense to bring with you. In some cases, the upmass makes sense to bring the spares. I think the first things to fabrciate may be simple tools or unique tools made for specific applications. Additionally, the exercise equipment is always in need of repair on the ISS so I could see some repair parts for the crew health equipment.
Greg, most of what I've read mentions simple tools and replacement parts would be the prime candidates. But then there's also the idea of making structures, like Contour Crafting has proposed http://www.designnews.com/author.asp?section_id=1392&doc_id=250614 JimG, thanks for weighing in with your direct experience. I think this is a very promising and exciting area to be working in.
Didn't know that printing on the Moon or Mars would require working in a "zero gravity" environment. Low gravity, as compared to earth maybe, but not zero gravity. If you are going to be making stuff to be used on the surface it would make no sense to transport it to space and then back to the surface as that would have a heavy cost in fuel that would be in short supply.
Ann this is really very informative article , thats really great that researchers are working on 3D printing by lunar rocks . This will drop down the cargo charges for the objects in case of development on moon . Many years back i heard that astronauts wants to colonize the moon but it was very difficult now what i feel in the near futur to develop coloniese it will be very easy to develop colonies on moon .
Thanks, Deberah. The cost of the fuel and logistics involved in shipping stuff to astronauts on the space station, the moon, or another planet is considered by many to be one of the main reasons humans haven't gone on longer space voyages or spent time on the moon. Another is figuring out how to protect us from harmful cosmic ray radiation.
Ann , you are absolutely correct the main issue these days for astronauts is cosmic ray radiation , these radiations are very harmfull and causes severe cellular damage which can result least in cancer and can lead to deaths as well .I have read somewhere that using plastic in deep space can drop down the issue of cosmic rays . Plastic reduces the radiation from fast moving charged particles cosmic rays , Anything with high hydrogen content with water will work well. However NASA is working in all of these remedies to find out a perfect solution .
Funny you should mention that about certain types of plastic helping to shield astronauts from cosmic rays. You're right--it's in an instrument in NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. I just wrote a blog on this discovery that will be appearing soon.
Norway-based additive manufacturing company Norsk Titanium is building what it says is the first industrial-scale 3D printing plant in the world for making aerospace-grade metal components. The New York state plant will produce 400 metric tons each year of aerospace-grade, structural titanium parts.
Siemens and Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology have achieved a faster production process based on selective laser melting for speeding up the prototyping of big, complex metal parts in gas turbine engines.
BMW has already incorporated more than 10,000 3D-printed parts in the Rolls-Royce Phantom and intends to expand the use of 3D printing in its cars even more in the future. Meanwhile, Daimler has started using additive manufacturing for producing spare parts in Mercedes-Benz Trucks.
SABIC's lightweighting polycarbonate glazing materials have appeared for the first time in a production car: the rear quarter window of Toyota's special edition 86 GRMN sports car, where they're saving 50% of its weight compared to conventional glass.
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