Adhesives used in medical electronics can also help with thermal design. For example, Master Bond's thermally conductive systems, including epoxies, silicones, and other elastomerics, vary in cure speed, viscosity, temperature resistance, flexibility, and thermal conductivity. The company designed its EP21ANHT thermally conductive epoxy system for tightly packed components and miniaturized electronic circuits. It has a low coefficient of thermal expansion of 18-20 in/in x 10-6 per degree centigrade, a dielectric strength of more than 400V/mil, and a tensile shear strength greater than 1,000psi. It resists a wide range of chemicals and adheres to a variety of substrates.
In consumer electronics, stiffer materials that also possess high ductility, flame retardancy for thinner walls, and good resistance to chemicals are becoming popular. As the number of antennas go up, materials must also possess good EMI shielding. For these uses, SABIC offers LNP Verton and Thermocomp compounds and Lexan EXL resins. Its LNP Thermocomp NX11302 polycarbonate/ABS-based thermoplastic compound, for example, provides high-impact resistance for durability, high flexural modulus for thin walls, and dimensional stability.
Electrically conductive adhesives and pastes, such as Henkel's ABLESTIK ICP-3535M1, are designed for electrical and adhesion stability, quick low-temperature curing, and no bleeding or wicking in the tight spaces of miniaturized components. (Source: Henkel Electronic Materials)
At a smaller scale of electronics, thinned wafers and through-silicon vias (TSVs) are chip packaging technologies enabling thinner, smaller consumer systems. Both are key technologies for stacking thinned wafers in 3D, a chip packaging method that's been mostly in R&D for several years. A 3D TSV market is just now developing for logic and memory chips, and volume production of stacked chip packages are expected to begin next year, Jim Ehle, 3M's marketing manager for electronic markets materials, said in an interview.
Existing 3D stacking methods have produced structures that are still pretty flat. 3M, which has not worked in the semiconductor area before, is partnering with IBM to jointly develop a new class of adhesives and processes that will let as many as 100 chips be stacked at the wafer level. This method will apply adhesive to hundreds of chips at a time, instead of one at a time as is currently done. The adhesives will also efficiently conduct heat through a densely packed stack of chips.
The challenges include a temporary wafer bonding system. You need thin wafers to etch TSVs, and thin wafers also improve thermal performance. The wafers need to be supported while doing backside grinding before they are diced. Our adhesive bonding process is fast and done at room temperature, because it's UV-cured. Usually before debonding, the wafer is put on a frame, and when you take it off, there's adhesive left on it, but our adhesive peels right off. That temporary bonding and debonding system has been a problem in the TSV market.
It's not just electronics either. My employer is a supplier of absorbent media that goes into rapid diagnostic lateral flow devices. Think pregnancy test. Most have a minimum of 5 different materials within the case. And there is continued research to make tests that work for more and more pieces of information and with various bodily fluids. It takes an appropriate chemical treatment and combination of materials for the tests to work effectively.
Ann-for years moving to the suburbs was seen as a sign of upward mobility. That lead to the ex-urbs and an increasing need for private-cars to commute to work or shopping centers.
Today, partly because of the sustainability movement, the city is popular again. People want to live, work and shop within walking distance, or at least a short ride on public transit. Urban planners have been consulting with trend forecasters lately to help them understand this new dynamic. Neighbourhoods are coming back.
In autos, smaller cars like the Mini or Prius have a deceptive amount of interior space for those who need it vertically or horizontally. Yet, they're shorter and, easier to park, than most sedans on the roads in the US.
Thanks for that clarification and context. I see what you mean. Autos certainly, but only to a point, since many Americans are taller/larger than people elsewhere. Housing I've also heard about, but smaller living spaces, except for seniors, generally does meet with a lot of resistance among American consumers. The one I don't get is urban planning: what aspect of that is or could get smaller?
Everyone seemed to recognize the concept for electronics easily. I pointed out that their cell phones are more powerful than their first PCs. But, they didn't get that it was also relevant for other areas such as autos, housing and urban-planning. I pointed out the popularity of the Mini, not only as an efficient city car but as great unisex design. It was dismissed as a fluke.
All you can do is stand by your work and wait for others to see it too.
Nadine, you are welcome. Since "smaller, faster, better" is an ongoing trend cluster in electronics over the last several decades--both at the board level and the system level--I'm surprised that anyone would dismiss this idea. What about the American market was seen as unusual in this context?
Thanks, Tim. Interestingly, the Japanese version is not the only swallowable endoscope. There are several different models. senya, thanks for catching that editing glitch--it should have said "one lead, not three." The Zio in fact uses two electrodes.
I am wondering about iRhythm Technologies approach (page 2) to use 1 electrode to acquire ECG. For an electrical signal to exist (unless the device is catching electrons) 2 terminals must be provided. The picture itself shows 2 electrodes, or to make this claim accurate, it shows 2 electrically connected terminals
Artificially created metamaterials are already appearing in niche applications like electronics, communications, and defense, says a new report from Lux Research. How quickly they become mainstream depends on cost-effective manufacturing methods, which will include additive manufacturing.
SpaceX has 3D printed and successfully hot-fired a SuperDraco engine chamber made of Inconel, a high-performance superalloy, using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The company's first 3D-printed rocket engine part, a main oxidizer valve body for the Falcon 9 rocket, launched in January and is now qualified on all Falcon 9 flights.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and MIT have 3D-printed a new class of metamaterials that are both exceptionally light and have exceptional strength and stiffness. The new metamaterials maintain a nearly constant stiffness per unit of mass density, over three orders of magnitude.
Smart composites that let the material's structural health be monitored automatically and continuously are getting closer to reality. R&D partners in an EU-sponsored project have demonstrated what they say is the first complete, miniaturized, fiber-optic sensor system entirely embedded inside a fiber-reinforced composite.
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