It’s hard to believe that anything could have been done cheaply to save costs on the NASA space shuttle. Yet that appears to be exactly the case with the insulation problems that have been plaguing recent flights. On Friday, cracked insulation was found on all three of the fuel tanks scheduled for upcoming flights. And the cracks have probably been there a while.
Cracks are appearing in foam-covered cork insulation that is applied to aluminum alloy brackets. The brackets, which are 17 inches long and four inches wide when foamed, support the liquid oxygen feedline on the external fuel tank. The cork prevents ice from forming on the brackets. Super-cold fuel is inside the tank. Engineers are now finally developing a better solution—replacement of the aluminum alloy with titanium. For the next shuttle flight, the foam and high-density cork insulation will be removed and replaced with foam only. The titanium parts will be ready by spring.
Bad materials engineering has been one of the banes of the space shuttle program. And the problems have not exactly been rocket science. The most famous, or course, was the O-ring failure that led to the disintegration of the Challenger in 1986. It was well known that the fluoroelastomeric materials in the O-rings had extremely poor low-temperature capabilities. Once compressed, very cold O-rings take time to return to their normal shape. Temperatures were very cold the night before the Challenger launch, but temperatures at launch time were within allowable guidelines. Because of poor communications, the problems with the O-ring materials’ properties were not adequately known, and the launch proceeded. O-ring joints now have on-board heaters that are turned on when temperatures drop below 50F.
A recent report sponsored by the American Chemistry Council (ACC) focuses on emerging gasification technologies for converting waste into energy and fuel on a large scale and saving it from the landfill. Some of that waste includes non-recycled plastic.
Capping a 30-year quest, GE Aviation has broken ground on the first high-volume factory for producing commercial jet engine components from ceramic matrix composites. The plant will produce high-pressure turbine shrouds for the LEAP Turbofan engine.
Seismic shifts in 3D printing materials include an optimization method that reduces the material needed to print an object by 85 percent, research designed to create new, stronger materials, and a new ASTM standard for their mechanical properties.
A recent study finds that 3D printing is both cheaper and greener than traditional factory-based mass manufacturing and distribution. At least, it's true for making consumer plastic products on open-source, low-cost RepRap printers.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.