As consumer electronics get smaller and lighter, plastics are becoming more important in parts such as the housings of laptop computers. Some use plastics containing post-consumer recycled content, such as SABIC’s CYCOLOY and VALOX iQ resins.
As always, you provide a comprehensive look at some of the cutting edge in materials, Ann. Lightweight engineering plastics are particularly interesting because as you show, they have such a broad range of application. I'm especially interested in their use as lightweight materials for solar-powered vehicles and medical devices.
Thanks, Elizabeth. Since plastics are, in effect, always a custom mix, the resins can be made to fit a wide variety of spec combinations. But I was a bit surprised at the mention of solar-powered vehicle applications.
Ann, I think that you will find that a whole lot of automotive "engineering" winds up being done by purchasing people who get rewarded for cutting costs, and it seems that they are awarded by suppliers for delivering POs. The evidence in that area is more circumstantial, such as purchasing people sporting diamond encrusted gold Rolex watches.
Sometimes a plastic part that can easily handle the calculated average loads is just not up to handling those larger occasional loads, at which point the failure is permanent even if the part sort of works after the damage. Purchasing people are great ones for cutting safety margins in order to reduce costs. But the result is much lower quality. But that reflects on the engineers and so purchasing does not care about reducing quality.
William, I know what you mean. That's true for a lot of industries, not just automotive. A long time ago I wrote for an electronics purchasing publication, the old EBN, and I spent most of my time trying to educate them on what engineers (mostly) already knew, as well as on what they were learning about new technologies. But the whole concept of how they buy what they buy is different, and that becomes a crucial factor in quality.
Years ago at one employer I had a stamp for my released drawings that stated "This system will not function as required unless it is wired according to the circuit shown". I needed to add , " and built with the specified materials", but at that job the problem was panelmen who took shortcuts. BUT the principle is identical.
Ann, I still do a bit of technical writing, but not so often as I used to. It is still an interesting challenge to create an explanation of exactly what a circuit does, component by component. Mostly that information is for the benefit of service people who need to understand how something works.
Ah, so you too did some tech writing. The operation manuals I wrote and edited were aimed at what used to be called "craft" in the old telephone system days. These were service/repair guys. But I had to circulate the new/updated copies to the internal engineering staff who, I'm sorry to say, always wanted to complicate things with theoretical side remarks, or had outdated, or just incorrect, ideas about language use and the established principles of instruction and communication. Many of the changes they wanted to make would confuse users, not clarify things. Anyway, it was quite a challenge.
Wow! I had one of those manuals a few years ago that went back through the old mechanical dial phones. It gave detailed circuits for a whole bunch of them.
Unfortunately I loaned it to a person who had no concept of the value it contained, and he lost it. I don't anticipate ever being able to obtain another copy, since they were obsolete when I got them.
But they were great for restoring antique and "classic" phones that I had collected. They were much easier than reverse engineering and then guessing at how things should be connected. Not the sort of thing that many folks would do, but then, I am one of those who reads circuit drawings for fun. Some call that quite demented.
The manuals I edited were actually for telephone line diagnostic equipment. You look at circuit diagrams for fun, I used to read dictionaries for fun. It's enjoying the use of the tools of one's trade. Not sure what's demented about that.
The critical comments that come from others, aimed at those who don't conform to being just like everybody else. But a caution here is that when I say different, I mean still within all standards of moral and ethical behavior, as opposed to those who are different in that they elect to disregard moral and ethical standards as well as common decency. So there is a big difference in differences.
Probably that last paragraph is a bit confusing , I am certain that it will be taken as a personal affront by those not mentioned. Which is why they were not mentioned by name or description.
Probably the biggest example of organizations demending, or at least planning on, conformity and a single way of thinking is that company microsoft. Yes, they provide a thousand ways to change the colors and fonts, but the software is constantly hanging when one does not do things the way that their programmers think that they should be done. So for those of us who don't follow the microsopht form, it is a fight to make the programs work. The presumption appears to be that, if you do one thing, you will only try to do it in one certain way, which is usually not the way that I want to do things. That is probably why Gates has so many who don't like him at all.
Being a car guy, I've had bad experiences over the years with "plastic/composite" parts failing in automobiles. One of the worst for me were the timing chain gears that GM used in the small block chevrolet V8 engines in the 1970s. But I've experienced plenty of smaller failures in plastics that just don't hold up over the years in the rough circumstances of the vehicular world. Silly little things like clips for hoses and wire assemblies are frequent failures, but there are bigger problems too.
Just last month I finally upgraded the plastic gears in my Trans-Am's headlight motors to a brass gear. The design of the headlight motor features an electric motor with a metal worm gear, that meshes with a plastic ring gear that's connected to the shaft which turns the headlight motor. Instead of incororating discrete limit switches in the design, they made a headlight controller which senses the high current spike when the headlight has reached the stops and can't spin any more. When it detects that high current, it turns off the motor. Unfortunately, that metal worm gear is placing a lot of pressure against that plastic rings gear and it eventually breaks teeth off of the plastic gear. There's a cheap fix to flip the assembly 180 degrees and use the other side of the gear (since the rotation only uses half of the gear), but eventually teeth on both sides break, causing the headlight to make a grinding sound when it reaches the limit. (The controller doesn't sense the current spike but has a failsafe to shut the motor off after a few seconds.)
Luckily, there are companies who machine nice metal gears for this application, but they are a bit expensive. Since my Trans-Am was my first new car which I'm keeping to pass down to my son some day, I finally invested in the new brass gears and they work well.
Thanks for sharing your actual experience with what we write about, Jim_E. I'm sorry to hear that about the plastic components in your cars. Much of the problem here, or elsewhere, is due to incorrect spec-ing of materials, sometimes because of engineers but often, as we hear a lot, because engineers spec the right material but management doesn't like the fact that quality costs more. That said, I'm surprised brass gears are OK, especially in a car. My bad experience with them is in a coffee-grinder: they wore down way too fast, changing the grind to very coarse by default.
As a P.S., here are some new engineering plastics from DuPont specifically for car applications that need resistance to high temperatures and chemicals: http://www.designnews.com/document.asp?doc_id=269020
Your Story of the headlight worm gear sounds familiar. Historically, plastic gears of any resin (often nylon) just didn't have the life-span that brass gears can offer. Under the hood environments are abusive, experiencing vibration, heat, dirt, and chemical spills. It's easy to understand why the Automotive OEMs would choose injection molded gears over brass, at a fraction of the cost to produce the parts. They don't have to last forever-- only 3 years or 36,000 miles!
Maybe Ann's new examples of the VALOX PBT and the XENOY blends will change all that, and low-cost injection molded gears can get a new reputation for longevity; starting today.
Artificially created metamaterials are already appearing in niche applications like electronics, communications, and defense, says a new report from Lux Research. How quickly they become mainstream depends on cost-effective manufacturing methods, which will include additive manufacturing.
SpaceX has 3D printed and successfully hot-fired a SuperDraco engine chamber made of Inconel, a high-performance superalloy, using direct metal laser sintering (DMLS). The company's first 3D-printed rocket engine part, a main oxidizer valve body for the Falcon 9 rocket, launched in January and is now qualified on all Falcon 9 flights.
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and MIT have 3D-printed a new class of metamaterials that are both exceptionally light and have exceptional strength and stiffness. The new metamaterials maintain a nearly constant stiffness per unit of mass density, over three orders of magnitude.
Smart composites that let the material's structural health be monitored automatically and continuously are getting closer to reality. R&D partners in an EU-sponsored project have demonstrated what they say is the first complete, miniaturized, fiber-optic sensor system entirely embedded inside a fiber-reinforced composite.
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