Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications such as aerospace requires some very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International. Its latest proposed working standard addresses powder bed fusion AM methods for metals, which includes EOS's direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) among others. Shown here, a prototype of a topology-optimized Airbus A380 bracket made of stainless-steel powder produced via EOS's DMLS (right) with a conventional cast steel bracket shown behind. (Source: Airbus Group Innovations)
Excellent point Greg, much better than putting the cart before the horse and then having compatibility issues later. Standards tend to evolve somewhat with new technologies but they are definitely a good idea, especially in the fields you mentioned.
It would be nice to see printer material delivery standards. Companies producing new printable materials can be prevented from selling them without a fee because the printer manufacturers own the patents to material delivery mechanisms for their printers. This could be a big material development disincentive.
Nancy, good point about the way that standards tend to "evolve." The big thing that's changed after several decades is now using these processes for end production, especially in fields with rigid quality requirements. There's enough complexity involved in 3D printing/additive manufacturing--among processes, machines, materials, and the characteristics of finished parts--that advance cooperation has become necessary.
jhankwitz, thanks for the reminder about the captive & proprietary status of so many 3D printing materials. There is an open matetrials market, especially for filament fusion printers, but these are low-end desktop machines and the materials tend to not be engineering quality. As we've discussed several times on DN, an open engineering-quality materials market is highly desirable but faces several hurdles. Standards for specifying higher-quality 3D printing materials will certainly help.
BMW has already incorporated more than 10,000 3D-printed parts in the Rolls-Royce Phantom and intends to expand the use of 3D printing in its cars even more in the future. Meanwhile, Daimler has started using additive manufacturing for producing spare parts in Mercedes-Benz Trucks.
SABIC's lightweighting polycarbonate glazing materials have appeared for the first time in a production car: the rear quarter window of Toyota's special edition 86 GRMN sports car, where they're saving 50% of its weight compared to conventional glass.
Design engineers play a big role in selecting both suppliers and materials for their designs. Our most recent Design News Materials Survey says they continue to be highly involved, in some ways even more than the last time we asked to peek inside their cubicles.
Daihatsu is one of the first carmakers to customize car exteriors using 3D printing's mass customization capabilities. Effect Skins -- small exterior bumper and fender panels in different colors and textures -- can be ordered for its Copen convertible.
Several new products in this group of new adhesives, coatings, and sealants are formulated to protect sensitive electronic components, or to seal components of commercial and military aircraft. Others are designed to operate in tough, messy, dirty oil & gas operations, or for rotary applications and motors.
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