Producing high-quality end-production metal parts with additive manufacturing for applications such as aerospace requires some very tightly controlled processes and materials. New standards and guidelines for machines and processes, materials, and printed parts are underway from bodies such as ASTM International. Its latest proposed working standard addresses powder bed fusion AM methods for metals, which includes EOS's direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) among others. Shown here, a prototype of a topology-optimized Airbus A380 bracket made of stainless-steel powder produced via EOS's DMLS (right) with a conventional cast steel bracket shown behind. (Source: Airbus Group Innovations)
Excellent point Greg, much better than putting the cart before the horse and then having compatibility issues later. Standards tend to evolve somewhat with new technologies but they are definitely a good idea, especially in the fields you mentioned.
It would be nice to see printer material delivery standards. Companies producing new printable materials can be prevented from selling them without a fee because the printer manufacturers own the patents to material delivery mechanisms for their printers. This could be a big material development disincentive.
Nancy, good point about the way that standards tend to "evolve." The big thing that's changed after several decades is now using these processes for end production, especially in fields with rigid quality requirements. There's enough complexity involved in 3D printing/additive manufacturing--among processes, machines, materials, and the characteristics of finished parts--that advance cooperation has become necessary.
jhankwitz, thanks for the reminder about the captive & proprietary status of so many 3D printing materials. There is an open matetrials market, especially for filament fusion printers, but these are low-end desktop machines and the materials tend to not be engineering quality. As we've discussed several times on DN, an open engineering-quality materials market is highly desirable but faces several hurdles. Standards for specifying higher-quality 3D printing materials will certainly help.
A lightweight electric urban concept car designed by several European companies weighs only 992 lb without its battery. It would have weighed 26.7 lb more if its windows were made of glass instead of the specially coated LEXAN polycarbonate resin from SABIC Innovative Plastics.
Skylar Tibbits' team in MIT's Self-Assembly Lab is now 4D printing self-assembling shapes made of programmable carbon composites and custom wood grain. The composites are being used in a sport car airfoil, and the wood grain is beautiful.
The NanoSteel Company has produced high-hardness ferrous metal matrix composite (MMC) parts using a new nanosteel powder in a one-step 3D-printing process. Parts are 99.9% dense, crack-free, and with wear resistance comparable to M2 tool steels.
The company that brought you 3D-printed eyeglasses has launched both an improved clear polymer material for 3D printing optical components and a high-speed, precision, 3D-printing process for making small- and medium-sized batches in a few days.
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