The windings on the stator of an SR motor are concentrated rather than distributed as they are in induction motors and some types of PM motors. This minimizes the length of the non-torque producing "end-turn" section of the winding and enables more torque to be produced from a given motor size, or alternatively yields a smaller motor for a given continuous torque requirement.
The PWM switching used by AC inverters creates losses every time the IGBTs switch, reducing efficiency. SR drive systems switch as well, but for a given motor speed around an order of magnitude less frequently than an inverter. This results in lower switching losses and, therefore, more efficient operation. SR systems offer comparable system efficiency to inverter-fed induction machines at rated speed and power. However, as operation moves away from rated speed and power, SR systems maintain higher efficiency over a wider range of speed and load than either induction or PM systems.
SR systems offer the ability to deliver rated power over a wide range of speed. This is a vital attribute in many traction-type applications such as mining vehicles, off-road vehicles, and, more recently, in commercial vehicle and automotive applications. “One of our licensees uses our technology in their wheel loader vehicles to replace brushed DC machines that were expensive to produce and maintain,” says Cummins.
There aren't any perfect solutions, and SR systems are no exception. They can't operate direct online as an induction motor can, and even though they're smaller than a comparable induction motor, in applications that are required only to run over a narrow speed range they remain somewhat larger than their rare earth PM counterparts. As in all types of engineering, it comes down to a series of tradeoffs. Designers need to consider all aspects of their application, from torque, size, and duty cycle to cost and time-to-market.
The REE market has become steadily more rational, and new sources coming online will continue to reduce costs. Still, it is unlikely that prices will drop to their former lows. Fortunately, engineers have a number of options when it comes to balancing cost and performance. By exploring the types of design alternatives we’ve discussed in this five-part series, OEMs can develop a system that will best meet all of their objectives.
Sport: no, not really. Dysprosium raises the Hc, which helps with temperature, but it hurts Br, so energy product drops. If you want a high-flux magnet, leave the Dy out. Neo magnets, even with lots (12%) of Dy, do NOT have great temperature performance. SmCo, Alnico, and ceramic magnets all are capable of performing at higher temperatures than Neo magnets. The advantages of Neo magnets are small size and low mass.
Neodymium Iron Boron magnets offer high energy products, but the higher-energy versions do NOT retain their magnetism well at high temperatures (compared to other magnet types)! Based on this information, the first sentence of this article is incorrect, and is probably based on the writer's lack of experience with Neo magnets.
Yes, I've noticed that different groups use terminology differently. It results in no end of confusion. That is why I took the trouble to clarify. It is possible that people in your industry use the term "cogging" differently than the areas I have been around.
What can you do? Language is organically grown and sprouts from many roots.
Sounds like the effect you are talking about comes from using a "soft" material for the motor's core. The core becomes magnetized, and therefore "sees" the gaps between the poles. When I took motor construction in 1980, that was considered a bad idea. A soft material would usually increase the torque of the motor for a given geometry, but lower its efficiency (it increased the core losses) and causes that form of ripple.
Of course, today that would be a concern also because it increases the motor's electrical emissions.
I am not into SR motors, but my guess would be that (like other styles of motors) it is dependant on the "hardness" of the material used for the rotor. A "hard" material would show very little effect.
Terminology, cogging versus torque ripple. Well...back in the early days of reel to reel audio tape recording Ampex was the pre-eminent manufacturer of tape decks. They employed Bodine hysteresis synchronous motors to drive the tape deck capstan. With a heavy flywheel as a low pass filter, both bearing noise and flutter could be reduced. That style motor could be made to exhibit a much higher degree of tape playback flutter. I suppose you could call it torque ripple since the effect was milder than slipping or skipping a pole.
If, while the capstan motor was energized, you changed its speed by switching windings, it would induce a temporary magnetization of the armature that would produce noticeable flutter. Simply de-energizing the motor and re-energizing it would erase the slight ripple effect.
Do you mean "cogging" or "torque ripple"? Torque ripple is an effect where the torque is reduced as the magnetic field moves from pole to pole in an AC motor or stepper motor or as a commutated motor switches windings. It stems from the fact that the rotor doesn't see a uniform magnetic field as it rotates. "Cogging" on the other hand is an effect commonly seen in stepper motors, but also appears in AC motors, where a motor under a heavy load slips back a full pole. "Cogging" is a catastrophic failure, because in most cases onee it happens, it continues to happen. The motor stops rotating and is subjected to an alternating torque of its full rated torque. This is usually loud and often destructive.
I suspect that SR motors don't cog, because the switching follows the rotor, similar to brushless DC motors. An overloaded motor would just slow down and stop switching.
I have no idea what their torque ripple performance is like.
I wonder how switched reluctance motors compare with other designs regarding cogging? Where motion has to be fluid, cogging can add vibration and velocity errors, flutter. This was an issue in the days of analog magnetic tape transport design. But that era is long gone.
Excellent engineering advice in this article, but it sure adds complexity to motor design - and engineering/prototyping/testing isn't free. Seems like many industries will still be forced to pay the higher price of REE.
I said this on the first article, we have used non REE motors, generators for 140 yrs or so and could even be better without them as better control and far more starting torque and peak power, things REE's don't do well.
Where is any mention of brushed motors like series, sep-ex, compound that ran the industural age? These in many ways are superior especially in tractive uses like EV's as they can stand far more heat, thus make more peak power. Add to that the controllers are 1/3 the cost and weight.
Only in the last yr has AC come anywhere near being as cost effective as these and I still have to pay 100% more for the joy of AC. That of course would raise the EV price by $2-3k and accepting lower starting power for that joy.
Another benefit is in smaller EV's the use of lower voltages lowering cell count, controller costs.
The cost of this is brushes that need to be changed in 100k miles or so but likely the bearings will needed anyway in DC or more likely in AC, so little extra cost in real life.
Improvements that don't do better at lower costs than past alternatives are not improvements.
Now in small wind generators REE's are hard to beat. I know as I've tried and building the production prototype now for a home size 3kw cost effective unit.
Luckily I've cut the needed REE's by 75% and if tests work out, 87.5% compared to the present competition. It looks like I'll even beat the Chinese WG's on price/proven kw/mph and destory them in quality.
Are they robots or androids? We're not exactly sure. Each talking, gesturing Geminoid looks exactly like a real individual, starting with their creator, professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan.
Truchard will be presented the award at the 2014 Golden Mousetrap Awards ceremony during the co-located events Pacific Design & Manufacturing, MD&M West, WestPack, PLASTEC West, Electronics West, ATX West, and AeroCon.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.