A single automaker will spend as much as $2 billion each year perfecting dies to press sheet steel into body parts for new car models. Sometimes manufacturers must redesign a die as many as 10 times before discovering the mold that forms the proper shape. A new technique, however, promises to assure that the die of the future needs to be cast but once. The technique was described at the American Crystallographic Association meeting in Arlington, VA. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) used an advanced measurement technique, known as in-situ ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering, to study the evolution of complex defect structures in deformed metals. They designed a special sample holder called a tensile stage for deforming samples in the x-ray beam. Thus engineers can study minute details about the formation of defects while the metal is being stretched and probed by the x-rays. NIST is devising a theoretical model connecting the observed defect structures with the mechanical properties of various materials. It's the first step toward developing new computer models that could help manufacturers slice die costs. Phone NIST's Gabrielle Long at (301) 975-5975 or Lyle Levine at (301) 975-6032.
Are they robots or androids? We're not exactly sure. Each talking, gesturing Geminoid looks exactly like a real individual, starting with their creator, professor Hiroshi Ishiguro of Osaka University in Japan.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.