Needles thinner than the diameter of a human hair could form the basis for a new drug-delivery technique able to administer small quantities of high-potency medications through the skin--without causing pain. Arrays of the microneedles could improve administration of existing medications, allow development of new therapeutic compounds, and open the door for microprocessor-based systems for delivering drugs continuously or in response to body needs. In fact, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology believe their microneedles would be especially useful with large protein-based molecules, such as those produced through new biotechnology processes. Such drugs often cannot be taken orally, but must be administered frequently enough to make traditional needle injection impractical or unpleasant. Using reactive ion etching microfabrication techniques developed for integrated circuits, Mark G. Allen, associate professor at Georgia Tech's School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, and two graduate students built solid silicon microneedle arrays 10-mm square. Existing needles are 150-mm long and leave holes about one micron in diameter when removed from the skin. Further development, the researchers say, should reduce the length and diameter of their microneedles, make them hollow to increase the rate of drug delivery, and permit mass fabrication of arrays at least a centimeter square. E-mail email@example.com
According to a study by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, one of the factors in the collapse of the original World Trade Center towers on Sept. 11, 2001, was the reduction in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement as a result of the high temperatures of the fire and the loss of thermal insulation.
Robots are getting more agile and automation systems are becoming more complex. Yet the most impressive development in robotics and automation is increased intelligence. Machines in automation are increasingly able to analyze huge amounts of data. They are often able to see, speak, even imitate patterns of human thinking. Researchers at European Automation
call this deep learning.
The promise of the Internet of Things (IoT) is that devices, gadgets, and appliances we use every day will be able to communicate with one another. This potential is not limited to household items or smartphones, but also things we find in our yard and garden, as evidenced by a recent challenge from the element14 design community.
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