The transistor of the future may not rely on decreased size, but on a radical change in operation. The device: a quantum mechanical transistor created at Sandia National Laboratories. The transistor corresponds to turning on a light bulb--without closing a switch. With the device, electrons "tunnel" from path to path through a barrier that, according to classical physics, is impenetrable. The process resembles the way cars use a tunnel to reach a location, without having to drive over an impossibly high summit. "We have demonstrated real circuits that work and are easily fabricated," reports Jerry Simmons, leader of the Sandia development team. In the device, two gallium arsenide layers, each only 150 angstroms thick, are separated by a 125-angstrom, aluminum-gallium arsenide barrier. The tiny thickness of the barrier causes the electrons to behave like waves, which can poke into the barrier. The device may run at a trillion operations a second, roughly 10 times the speed of the fastest transistor circuits currently in use. Actual speed has not yet been measured, says Simmons, because it is "not easy to measure such high speeds, which are near the limits of measurements with conventional equipment." E-mail jsimmon@sandia..
The problem with a four-, five-, or six-year degree is that they don’t teach engineers the soft skills required to have a successful career. Here are seven skills that every engineering graduate needs to be successful.
Design teams are operating in a business environment that increasingly requires them to collaborate and share data across extended teams, multiple organizations, and widespread locations. Autodesk’s customers are looking for a solution that eliminates project bottlenecks, such as the time-consuming and error-ridden process of shuttling design reviews and revisions back and forth among team members.
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