The transistor of the future may not rely on decreased size, but on a radical change in operation. The device: a quantum mechanical transistor created at Sandia National Laboratories. The transistor corresponds to turning on a light bulb--without closing a switch. With the device, electrons "tunnel" from path to path through a barrier that, according to classical physics, is impenetrable. The process resembles the way cars use a tunnel to reach a location, without having to drive over an impossibly high summit. "We have demonstrated real circuits that work and are easily fabricated," reports Jerry Simmons, leader of the Sandia development team. In the device, two gallium arsenide layers, each only 150 angstroms thick, are separated by a 125-angstrom, aluminum-gallium arsenide barrier. The tiny thickness of the barrier causes the electrons to behave like waves, which can poke into the barrier. The device may run at a trillion operations a second, roughly 10 times the speed of the fastest transistor circuits currently in use. Actual speed has not yet been measured, says Simmons, because it is "not easy to measure such high speeds, which are near the limits of measurements with conventional equipment." E-mail jsimmon@sandia..
Biomimicry has already found its way into the development of robots and new materials, with researchers studying animals and nature to come up with new innovations. Now thanks to researchers in Boston, biomimicry could even inform the future of electrical networks for next-generation displays.
Clean diesel continues to be the fuel of choice for transportation authorities in major U S cities, in spite of competitive options aimed at reducing emissions, according to a nonprofit agency that represents diesel engine and equipment manufacturers.
A panel at this year's Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas discussing upcoming FAA regulations for non-military drones brought out many of the issues that concern both industry and federal regulators.
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