Sale of fly ash is a flourishing business for many electric utilities. In fact, some 12 million tons of fly ash produced by coal-fired electricity plants in the U.S. are sold to the cement and concrete industries. However, this business may be in danger. Many utilities find that nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction equipment installed to meet Clean Air Act emissions standards can increase the unburned carbon content of fly ash, making it unmarketable. A new technology, Carbon Burn-Out (CBO), could solve this problem. Designed around fluidized-bed combustion, the process provides temperature, residence time, and oxygen content at values optimized for fly ash carbon combustion. The system's hot restart and cycling capability is similar to that of fluidized-bed steam generators in its ability to quickly recover from a trip condition or short-term forced outage. Not only does CBO produce a high-quality, low-carbon fly ash, but the heat recovered in the process improves the efficiency of the host power plant. Based on successful tests conducted by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) at a pilot plant operated by South Carolina Electric & Gas, the utility has constructed a full-scale facility designed to produce about 160,000 tons of the low-carbon fly ash per year. E-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Robots that walk have come a long way from simple barebones walking machines or pairs of legs without an upper body and head. Much of the research these days focuses on making more humanoid robots. But they are not all created equal.
The IEEE Computer Society has named the top 10 trends for 2014. You can expect the convergence of cloud computing and mobile devices, advances in health care data and devices, as well as privacy issues in social media to make the headlines. And 3D printing came out of nowhere to make a big splash.
For industrial control applications, or even a simple assembly line, that machine can go almost 24/7 without a break. But what happens when the task is a little more complex? That’s where the “smart” machine would come in. The smart machine is one that has some simple (or complex in some cases) processing capability to be able to adapt to changing conditions. Such machines are suited for a host of applications, including automotive, aerospace, defense, medical, computers and electronics, telecommunications, consumer goods, and so on. This discussion will examine what’s possible with smart machines, and what tradeoffs need to be made to implement such a solution.