Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells that use methanol as fuel offer enormous potential for transitioning consumers to electric cars, while leveraging the advantages of a familiar liquid fuel infrastructure. Such fuel cells, however, depend on a separate reformer to extract the hydrogen from the methanol. Now, a joint research team from NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the University of Southern California (USC) has developed a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell (DMLFFC) that not only doesn't require a reformer, it actually produces more energy from a mixture of 97% water and 3% methanol than from methanol or hydrogen alone. The secret lies in the addition of 50% ruthenium to the normally platinum-only anode catalyst. The carbon-to-hydrogen bonds in the methanol/water solution are broken in the presence of the catalyst, resulting in hydrogen ions (protons) and electrons--the output current. The protons migrate through the membrane and combine with oxygen from the air to produce water. This water is remixed with the methanol fuel so that only methanol has to be added to the cell. To date, prototypes have run for more than 200 hours continuously and for more than 3,000 hours intermittently, without loss of performance. FAX (818) 354-4537.
Major global metropolitan areas are implementing a vast number of technology, energy, transportation, and Internet projects to make the metropolis a friendlier, greener, safer, and more sustainable place to be.
Here’s a look at robots depicted in movies and on TV during the 1950s and 1960s. We tried to collect the classics here, omitting the scores of forgettable B movies such as Santa Claus Conquers the Martians and Dr. Goldfoot and the Bikini Machine. Stay tuned for slideshows of robot stars from later decades.
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