Foreign S&E doctoral holders stay in U.S. 'where jobs are'
Foreign-born students who earn science and engineering (S&E) doctoral degrees in the U.S. are staying here in greater numbers. A fresh study by the National Science Foundation finds that between 1988 and 1996 63% of them planned to locate here. That compares with 50% or less of those previously studied. During the period, more than 55,000 foreign-born students received doctorates in the U.S. Two-thirds of those who planned to stay had firm plans for further study or employment. The most firm offers from industry were in engineering, followed by physical sciences and computer sciences. Educational institutions offered the most jobs to students with degrees in psychology and social sciences, followed by en-gineering and mathematics. Asian students represented the highest percentage by far of S&E doctoral recipients planning to stay. Study author Jean Johnson tells Design News that the increased numbers stem from the fact that the U.S. is "where the jobs are." Contact Johnson at (703) 306-1777 or at email@example.com††
Volvo's anti-whiplash seat passes U.S. tests with new dummies
WHIPS, a new seatback and head restraint system by Volvo, shows great promise for reducing whiplash in rear-end auto collisions. The system successfully passed three crash tests performed by the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (Arlington, VA). For the first time in the U.S., researchers used advanced rear-impact dummies, called BioRIDs. WHIPS features a seat hinge that controls the force of the seatback against the occupant's torso so that the torso accelerates more slowly than the car. A head restraint is high enough and close enough to the back of an occupant's head to catch it before the torso has moved so far that the neck suddenly changes shape. Phone Brian O'Neill at (703) 247-1500 or fax him at (703) 247-1588.
New tools developed for designers working with aluminum, steam
A new, computerized design system is now available to engineers who work with aluminum. Called the Aluminum Design System (ADS), it is a computerized version of the "The Aluminum Design Manual" of the Aluminum Association (Washington, DC). The software not only explains how to solve problems using multiple input variables, but it also performs many of the required calculations. The resource includes allowable stress design specifications, building load and resistance factor design specifications, and examples of design. For more information and prices phone (800) 888-8680. Meanwhile, for designers working with steam, the National Institute of Standards and Technology has come out with an updated set of "steam tables." They cover the density, enthalpy, entropy, and volume of water and steam. While users who need high accuracy for industrial design should use software that implements formulations, NIST officials say, the printed tables still are needed for quick estimates or when computers are not available. The tables are in NIST Interagency Report 5078. For copies, phone Allan H. Harvey at (303) 497-3555.
Depowered airbags appear safe for big adults in minor crashes
Airbags redesigned to deploy less forcefully to avoid injuring short women in minor crashes appear to adequately protect taller adults, too. So indicates new government data on 115 crashes of cars carrying the new airbags that automakers started in-stalling in 1997. Earlier, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), at the urging of the auto industry, had dropped a required crash test that called for more powerful airbags. In so doing, NHTSA officials expressed fear that the new bags would not open with enough force to protect men who fail to wear seat belts. So far that doesn't look like a problem, according to the national medical director of the government-financed Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network. Phone Louis J. Brown, Jr. at (202) 366-5199 or e-mail him at firstname.lastname@example.org†
UNIX system, C language remain at heart of most CAD programs
Among latest winners of the National Medal of Technology are the inventors of the software that drives most CAD programs. Receiving the federal government's highest honor for technological innovation were Kenneth L. Thompson and Dennis M. Ritchie. They are the Lucent Technologies' Bell Labs team that created the UNIX operating system and the C programming language. UNIX and C have expanded and grown in power over two decades. Object-oriented features have transformed C into C++. Design engineers familiar with the changes can write executable shell scripts to customize their CAD programs. Two new books containing CD-ROMs bring users up to date. One is Peter Kuo's third edition of Using UNIX. The other is Jesse Liberty's C++ Unleashed, based on the latest ANSI/ISO C++ standard. Both books are products of Macmillan Publishing USA (Indianapolis). Phone (317) 581-3575 or fax (317) 581-3611.