Fiat's 1.4-liter Multi-Air inline four-cylinder engine features Fully Variable Valve Actuation. The intake valves replace traditional overhead cam systems with hydraulic actuation controlled by four fast-responding solenoids. As a result, the engine delivers instantaneous air-fuel adjustment at any time in the engine cycle for maximum efficiency and power. Solenoids can be seen in red in this photo. (Source: Fiat)
The efficiency of new cars over older ones is moot if, as I have read, the emmissions over the existance of the vehicle is >90% in manufacture and recycling and 10% in use. It indicates that an older car kept in service for another 5, or even 10 years, saves a lot more than scrapping a 10y/o vehicle to replace it with even a hybrid. Also, with recharging a battery or hybrid vehicle, it only moves the emissions back to the power station.
Yes plants take CO2 and produce Oxigen, the KEY here is HOW MUCH and at what SPEED, the amount they use is the same no matter how much CO2 is in the environment and the speed at which they use it is also CONSTANT (or to say in a different way; dependent within narrow limits of the amounts of sun the receive, which can't be changed).
The only way to increase HOW MUCH CO2 gets converted is to INCREASE the AMOUNT OF PLANTS, unfortunately the net balance IN PLANET EARTH is that the NET AMOUNT OF PLANTS in the planet is DECREASING, the planet is being DEFORESTED at incresing speeds as depredatory human use of plants and resources increase and HUMAN PRODUCTION of CO2 and polution is INCREASING at such rate that ANY AMOUNT OF PLANTS is actually able to take those amounts of CO2.
Get the idea?
Is like the idea of a generator driven by an electric motor to produce energy that will drive the electric motor... the numbers DON'T ADD up.
Recently we had someone at PriusChat pose the same question: can an efficient engine compete with a Prius if everything else is the same?
It turns out Toyota has done the experiment with the "Prius c" and "Yaris". Comparing the 1.5L, automatic Prius c to the 1.5L, automatic Yaris:
53 MPG :: 32 MPG - City, Prius c to Yaris
46 MPG :: 35 MPG - Hwy, Prius c to Yaris
$19,737 - $24,016 :: $14,840 - $ 17,200 - Prius c to Yaris
Since 2004 when the battery modules and transaxle were redesigned, we're not seeing failures. In fact, salvage Prius are providing parts for the 2001-03 Prius which also continue to keep on running. I've got 150,000 miles on our first Prius and we're still getting 52 MPG. Since we put over 15,000 miles/yr on that car, it has been a very good deal with low maintenace (the engine is loafing) and we still haven't replaced brake pads or shoes.
Like any new technology, the Prius isn't for everyone ... just those who prefer to bank their fuel savings. For those who don't drive much, any car will do. But if you're driving more than 15,000 miles per year, the Prius can help make a car payment every year . . . even after the car is paid off.
One reason: the photosynthesis cycle doesn't remove CO2 permanently. It binds carbon with hydrogen (from water) to release O2. However, there are other processes that release carbon, consuming O2. Animals are one (eat carbohydrates, eliminate CO2). Microbes do it (composting, wetlands, etc.). Fire does it.
So, just planting greenery doesn't necessarily modify the amount of carbon in play. It takes also preventing the hydrocarbon from breaking down. Otherwise, it is just a wheel turning around, figuratively speaking.
"... Natural diamonds are commonly believed to have been formed millions of years ago.
If the rate carbon 14 decays has been consistent, any carbon 14 older than 100,000 years is undetectable by current measuring techniques.
But carbon 14 has been measured within natural diamonds. Either the decay rate of carbon 14 is not uniform, the diamonds are younger than believed, or both. Carbon 14 in diamonds is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions.
Minerals Have Too Much Helium
The shiny black specks in granite are mica. Within mica are natural zircon crystals, only a few microns in size. Helium quickly diffuses out of zircon.
If the granite is millions of years old, as commonly believed, all the helium should be gone.
However, measurements indicate that much of the helium still remains. Either the diffusion rate of the helium is not uniform, the zircon crystals are younger than believed, or both. Helium in granite is evidence that the earth is thousands of years old, not millions.
The Sea Does Not Have Enough Minerals
There is not enough salt in the sea or mud on the sea floor for the seas to be billions of years old.
Every year, salt accumulates in the ocean from rivers. Given the present rate it is increasing per year, the current 3.5 percent ocean salinity is much too low if this process has been going on for a very long time.
Mud enters the seas through rivers and dust storms. This occurs at much faster rates than plate tectonic subduction can remove it. Each year, 19 billion tons of mud accumulates. If the oceans were ancient, the oceans would be choked with sediment dozens of kilometers deep.
"... While the early faint Sun paradox does not tell us that the Solar System is only thousands of years old, it does seem to rule out the age being billions of years.", The Young Faint Sun Paradox and the Age of the Solar System by Danny Faulkner, Ph.D.
A quick look into the merger of two powerhouse 3D printing OEMs and the new leader in rapid prototyping solutions, Stratasys. The industrial revolution is now led by 3D printing and engineers are given the opportunity to fully maximize their design capabilities, reduce their time-to-market and functionally test prototypes cheaper, faster and easier. Bruce Bradshaw, Director of Marketing in North America, will explore the large product offering and variety of materials that will help CAD designers articulate their product design with actual, physical prototypes. This broadcast will dive deep into technical information including application specific stories from real world customers and their experiences with 3D printing. 3D Printing is