Fiat's 1.4-liter Multi-Air inline four-cylinder engine features Fully Variable Valve Actuation. The intake valves replace traditional overhead cam systems with hydraulic actuation controlled by four fast-responding solenoids. As a result, the engine delivers instantaneous air-fuel adjustment at any time in the engine cycle for maximum efficiency and power. Solenoids can be seen in red in this photo. (Source: Fiat)
BioChar /pyrolysis let's us use everything we harvest for food, fiber and materials, then convert it to energy when would otherwise dump it. The result is charcoal that is a great additive to poor soils and carbon NEGATIVE, or it can be used to replace coal in steel coking.
Turning our wastes into energy, and recovering the metals is the only way to go if we want to survive. The Waste energy and fuel is perfect for long transport, chemicals and backing up solar and wind.
Plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen, so there is the benefit. Trees do this very well and don't require a lot of attention to keep doing it for quite a while. Other plants do it also.
Now if the dead plants are not immediately broken down, much of that carbon can remain tied up in other compounds, or perhaps recovered as elemental carbon, which is fairly stable and seldom found as a gas. And just consider all of that wood that is tied up in construction, with the carbon securely anchored for many years. Just consider that, OK?
The main performance benefit from water injection was to allow the engines to be pushed a lot harder without burning up. Switching on the high boost from the supercharger, or turbo-supercharger, would otherwise burn up the engine quite quickly. So the water alcohol mix was injected to prevent destruction. At least that is what I read in the service manual for one of those engines. The manual went into quite a lot of detail. I believe that it was printed by Ford, so the source is valid.
Without the water injection the detonation in the cylinders would destroy the engine in a short time.
Chuck; Sorry this isn't about energy efficient ICE's. For some reason, energy efficiency, which should be a good thing under most circumstances, always brings out the anti-green crowd.
Rob; While plants do convert CO2, that doesn't mean they eliminate it- most of the carbon gets re-liberated when the plant dies, rots, burns, is eaten etc. The case of plants sequestering carbon is typically in the form of the ancient gas, oil, and coal deposits that we have been releasing from sequestration at rates far, far above the rates of deposition. Indeed, what makes the current increase of CO2 so unnatural and worrisome, is the rate of change, which makes the end result highly unpredictable. That includes any predictions that nothing bad will happen.
There have beens periods of earths history where CO2 levels were much higher, but the life forms were much different too. While man may be able to adapt his personal environment enough to survive any changes, it won't be the same earth, and won't be optimized for human life any more.
Oddly enough, conservation should be a conservative's natural ally. I don't get it.
I think everyone is missing a small detail, fossil fuels will be too expensive to burn in under 20 yrs so really this is just the dying gasps of ICE's,nothing more.
Facts are even improving them from 7% eff of thevfuel actuall moving the car to 9 or 10% means little.
What we need are new designs, far lighter, more eff with EV drive. The only ICE needed might nbe a tiny generator running at it's most eff speed, something car only do a few seconds at a time accelerating. Any other time it's just wasting large amounts of power, gasoline.
For instance my lightweight, aero 2 Seat EV sportwagon would go 70 mph on the power these use to idle!! Not sure how that is going to win the future for ICE's.
Vs say the Volt which on their 24kwhr battery pack my EV sportwagon would get 250 mile range!! So they have a lot of work to do cutting weight, drag. Mostly this is because done in composite instead of metal, weighs 30% of the Volt.
Say you charge from your PV EV eff is around 65% to the rear wheels because it only makes the power actually needed when needed at high eff, Sadly ICE can't do this so they are history very soon.
A Prop for Ford who has an Option for it's EV's, a solar PV array for $10k to power the EV and home for 25 yrs for $10k!! Going to be hard to beat that inprice once the EV costs drop to reasonable.
First: the water produced by combustion is already in vapor phase, not liquid. Thus, its latent heat cooling effect is not available, as the water vapor present in the exhaust gases is at their exact temperature. Second, water or water-Methanol injection helps exert a large cooling effect because of its vaporization heat absorption value. Pure water is vaporized and goes together with exhaust. Adding Methanol (cheapest alcohol) helps because of its fuel contribution and Oxygen addition. It was developed just before WW-II in german fighter aircraft, and could add very significant power during some minutes, crucial in air battles. There have been some (a few) Water Injection kits available thru the years for the performance oriented people, but for common, lazy people, the hassle to have to buy pure water (demineralized is enough) and replenish the little tank frequently is too big to do, but it remains a tremendously effective way to increase maximum available in high compression or Turbo/Supercharged engines power, without having to spend a lot more. Amclaussen.
Some cars are more reliable than others, but even the vehicles at the bottom of this year’s Consumer Reports reliability survey are vastly better than those of 20 years ago in the key areas of powertrain and hardware, experts said this week.
As it does every year, Consumers Union recently surveyed its members on the reliability of their vehicles. This year, it collected data on approximately 1.1 million cars and trucks, categorizing the members’ likes and dislikes, not only of their vehicles, but of the vehicle sub-systems, as well.
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